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大型制药厂热电冷三联供工程设计(英文文献翻译+开题报告+CAD图纸)

更新时间:2010-3-24:  来源:毕业论文

大型制药厂热电冷三联供工程设计(英文文献翻译+开题报告+CAD图纸)
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATIONINTRODUCTION
The absorption cycle is a process by which refrigeration effect is produced through the use of two fluids and some quantity of heat input, rather than electrical input as in the more familiar vapor compression cycle. Both vapor compression and absorption refrigeration cycles accomplish the removal of heat through the evaporation of a refrigerant at a low pressure and the rejection of heat through the condensation of the refrigerant at a higher pressure. The method of creating the pressure difference and circulating the refrigerant is the primary difference between the two cycles. The vapor compression cycle employs a mechanical compressor to create the pressure differences necessary to circulate the refrigerant. In the absorption system, a secondary fluid or absorbent is used to circulate the refrigerant. Because the temperature requirements for the cycle fall into the low-to-moderate temperature range, and there is significant potential for electrical energy savings, absorption would seem to be a good prospect for geothermal application.
Absorption machines are commercially available today in two basic configurations. For applications above 32°F (primarily air conditioning), the cycle uses lithium bromide as the absorbent and water as the refrigerant. For applications below 32°F, an ammonia/water cycle is employed with ammonia as the refrigerant and water as the absorbent.
LITHIUM BROMIDE/WATER CYCLE MACHINES 
Figure 1 shows a diagram of a typical lithium bromide/ water machine (Li Br/H2O). The process occurs in two vessels or shells. The upper shell contains the generator and condenser; the lower shell, the absorber and evaporator.
Heat supplied in the generator section is added to a solution of Li Br/H2O. This heat causes the refrigerant, in this case water, to be boiled out of the solution in a distillation process. The water vapor that results passes into the condenser section where a cooling medium is used to condense the vapor back to a liquid state. The water then flows down to the evaporator section where it passes over tubes containing the fluid to be cooled. By maintaining a very low pressure in the absorber-evaporator shell, the water boils at a very low temperature. This boiling causes the water to absorb heat from the medium to be cooled, thus, lowering its temperature. Evaporated water then passes into the absorber section where it is mixed with a Li Br/H2O solution that is very low in water content. This strong solution (strong in Li Br) tends to absorb the vapor from the evaporator section to form a weaker solution. This is the absorption process that gives the cycle its name. The weak solution is then pumped to the generator section to repeat the cycle.
As shown in Figure 1, there are three fluid circuits that have external connections: a) generator heat input, b) cooling water, and c) chilled water. Associated with each of these circuits is a specific temperature at which the machines are rated. For single-stage units, these temperatures are : 12 psi steam (or equivalent hot water) entering the generator, 85°F cooling water, and 44°F leaving chilled water (ASHRAE, 1983). Under these conditions, a coefficient of performance (COP) of approximately 0.65 to 0.70 could be expected (ASHRAE, 1983). The COP can be thought of as a sort of index of the efficiency of the machine. It is calculated by dividing the cooling output by the required heat input. For example, a 500-ton absorption chiller operating at a COP of 0.70 would require: (500 x 12,000 Btu/h) divided by 0.70 = 8,571,429 Btu/h heat input. This heat input suggests a flow of 9,022 lbs/h of 12 psi steam, or 1,008 gpm of 240°F water with a 17°F delta T.
Two-stage machines with significantly higher COPs are available (ASHRAE, 1983). However, temperature requirements for these are well into the power generation temperature range (350°F). As a result, two-stage machines would probably not be applied to geothermal applications.
PERFORMANCE
 Based on equations that have been developed (Christen, 1977) to describe the performance of a single-stage absorption machine, Figure 2 shows the effect on COP and capacity (cooling output) versus input hot-water temperature. Entering hot water temperatures of less than 220°F result in substantial reduction in equipment capacity. The reason for the steep drop off in capacity with temperature is related to the nature of the heat input to the absorption cycle. In the generator, heat input causes boiling to occur in the absorbent/refrigerant mixture. Because the pressure is fairly constant in the generator, this fixes the boiling temperature. As a result, a reduction in the entering hot water temperature causes a reduction in the temperature difference between the hot fluid and the boiling mixture. Because heat transfer varies directly with temperature difference, there is a nearly linear drop off in absorption refrigeration capacity with entering hot water temperature. In the past few years, one manufacturer (Yazaki, undated) has modified small capacity units (2 to 10 ton) for increased performance at lower inlet temperature. However, low-temperature modified machines are not yet available in large outputs, which would be applicable to institutional- and industrial-type projects. Although COP and capacity are also affected by other variables such as condenser and chilled water temperatures and flow rates, generator heat input conditions have the largest impact on performance. This is a particularly important consideration with regard to geothermal applications.
Because many geothermal resources in the 240°F and above temperature range are being investigated for power generation using organic Rankine cycle (ORC) schemes, it is likely that space conditioning applications would see temperatures below this value. As a result, chillers operating in the 180 to 230°F range would (according to Figure 2) have to be (depending on resource temperature) between 400 and 20% oversized respectively for a particular application. This would tend to increase capital cost and decrease payback when compared to a conventional system.
An additional increase in capital cost would arise from the larger cooling tower costs that result from the low COP of absorption equipment. The COP of singe effect equipment is approximately 0.7. The COP of a vapor compression machine under the same conditions may be 3.0 or higher. As a result, for each unit of refrigeration, a vapor compression system would have to reject 1.33 units of heat at the cooling tower. For an absorption system, at a COP of 0.7, 2.43 units of heat must be rejected at the cooling tower. This results in a significant cost penalty for the absorption system with regard to the cooling tower and accessories.
In order to maintain good heat transfer in the generator section, only small delta Ts can be tolerated in the hot water flow stream. This is a result of the fact that the machines were originally designed for steam input to the generator. Heat transfer from the condensing steam is a constant temperature process. As a result, in order to have equal performance, the entering hot water temperature would have to be above the saturated temperature corresponding to the inlet steam pressure at rated conditions. This is to allow for some delta T in the hot water flow circuit. In boiler coupled operation, this is of little consequence to operating cost. However, because delta T directly affects flow rate, and thus pumping energy, this is a major consideration in geothermal applications.
For example, assuming a COP of 0.54 and 15°F delta T on the geothermal fluid, 250 ft pump head and 65% wire-to-water efficiency at the well pump, approximately 0.20 kW/t pumping power would be required. This compares to approximately 0.50 - 0.60 kW/t for a large centrifugal machine (compressor consumption only).
The small delta T and high flow rates also point out another consideration with regard to absorption chiller use in space conditioning applications. Assume a geothermal system is to be 922

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