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商务楼中央空调系统设计说明书+CAD图纸+负荷计算表

更新时间:2016-11-6:  来源:毕业论文

商务楼中央空调系统设计说明书+CAD图纸+负荷计算表 本工程的任务是为位于深圳市的一高层综合性大厦——恒东商务楼,设计合理的中央空调系统,为室内工作人员提供舒适的工作环境。本设计依据有关规范考虑节能和舒适性要求,并根据建筑物的使用功能,确定中央空调系统采用全空气系统,并对这种空调系统进行设计、分析及计算。设计内容包括:有关资料文献的查阅;了解高层综合楼空调系统的设计原则;室内外设计参数的确定;空调冷负荷计算;空调系统的确定;风系统的设计与计算;气流组织的设计和计算;空调冷热源的选择;空调系统的消声、防震设计;
负荷计算是暖通空调设计和设备选取的基础,也是后面进行能耗分析的基本环节。现在国内有许多负荷计算软件,其中本人比较熟悉的是PKPM和鸿业负荷计算软件,由于之前的学习中一直使用的是鸿业软件,所以这次依然选用鸿业软件来进行恒东商务楼的负荷计算,但由于用软件进行的负荷计算普遍存在较大的偏差,我同时用逐时发进行了负荷计算,并在正文中举例说明。
本工程一层为大堂、营业场及一些会议室所组成,二层为营业场所,三层为餐厅,四层以上都是以大空间办公室为主,对于大厅和营业场所和大开间办公室这样的大空间空调区域,适合采用全空气系统,其余一些房间若考虑方便单独使用,则可以考虑风机盘管加新风系统。但是本商务楼大多数区域为大空间空调区域,则全部采用全空气系统。本设计采用全空气系统有以下优点:采用全空气系统能满足对空气的各种处理要求,且便于集中调节和维护保养;室内空气质量容易得到保证和控制。初投资和运行费用较小,新风量调节比较方便且使用寿命长。春秋季可实现全新风送风,节约能源,降低运行费用;若采用风机盘管加新风系统,则需要在大厅,营业场所、大开间办公室等大空间布置较多的设备台数,致使维护工作量加大,漏水可能性较大,且维修很不方便,所以,不考虑风机盘管加新风系统。此外全空气系统还分为一次回风系统和二次回风系统,由于一次回风系统夏季冷量由室内冷负荷、新风冷负荷和再热负荷组成,对于送风温差要求不严格的舒适性空调系统,采用最大送风温差送风即露点送风的一次空调系统,可不需消耗再热量,因而可节省能耗。但送风温差过大,往往会造成送风口结露现象,为避免此问题,采用一次回风空调系统需利用再热来解决送风温差受限制的问题,即为了保证必需的送风温差,一次回风系统在夏季有时需要再热,从而产生冷热抵消的现象。二次回风空调系统则采用二次回风来减小温差,达到节约能量的目的,它节省的是再热负荷。但是,由于本次设计的送风温差足够大,能够露点送风且一次回风空调系统较简单。因此,本设计使用的全空气系统采用一次回风系统并采用露点送风。露点送风是指空气经冷却处理到接近饱和的状态点,不经再加热送入室内。
确定系统形式后,进行风系统的方案设计和计算。采用一次回风的方法计算夏季风量和冷量。然后根据每间房的风量和面积确定散流器的规格和台数。气流组织设计的任务是合理地组织室内空气的流动,使室内工作区空气的温度、湿度、速度和洁净度能更好地满足工艺要求及人们的舒适感要求。空调房间气流组织是否合理,不仅直接影响房间的空调效果,而且也影响空调系统的能耗量。影响气流组织的因素很多,如送风口位置及形式,回风口位置,房间几何形状及室内的各种扰动等。所以在设计过程中如何将散流器合理的布置在图纸上也是一项非常重要的任务。此外本工程采用上送上回的气流组织形式是因为按照送、回风口布置位置和型式的不同,气流组织形式可以归纳为以下五种本文来自六/维(论"文\网,毕业论文 www.lwfree.cn 加7位QQ324~9114找原文:上送上回,上送下回,中送上下回,下送上回及侧送。采用散流器送风时宜采用上送上回的组织形式。上送下回方式在气流组织上比上送上回更为合理,室内空气参数均匀,不存在送、回风气流短流问题,也适用于房间净高较高的场所。但是,它要求回风管接至空调房间的下部,这将占用一定的建筑面积,有时这是较为困难的。因此,只有在布置合理及条件允许时,才采用此方式。
最后是根据计算所得冷量对冷热源系统进行选型以及一些消声防震系统的设计。
General description of the design
The project task is that designing reasonable central air conditioning system for a high-rise comprehensive building located in the city of Shenzhen -- Hengdong business building, to provide a comfortable working environment for the staff. This design is based on the relevant norms of considering energy-saving and comfortable requirements, and according to the use of the building function, determine the central air conditioning system with full air system, and carries on the design, analysis and calculation of this kind of air conditioning system. The design content includes: access to relevant literature; understanding the design principles of air conditioning system in high-rise comprehensive building; Determination of indoor and outdoor design parameters of air-conditioning cooling load calculation; determination; air conditioning system; design and calculation of wind system; design and calculation of air distribution; air conditioning cold and heat source selection; muffler, air conditioning system design of earthquake resistance;
The load calculation is the basis of HVAC design and equipment selection, also is behind the basic link energy consumption analysis. Now there are many load calculation software, which I am more familiar with the software PKPM and Hongye load, as has been the use of prior learning is Hongye software, so this is still the Hongye software to Hengdong commercial building load calculation, but because the software is used to load the ubiquitous computing large deviation at the same time, I using the hourly made a load calculation, in the text and illustration.
This project is a layer of the hall, the business field and some rooms are composed of two layers, business premises, the three layer is the restaurant, with more than four layers are mainly large office space, for the hall and business premises and the large standard width of a room office such large space air conditioning area, suitable for all air system, the rest room if we consider the convenience used alone, can consider fan-coil unit plus fresh air system. But the business building in most regions of large space air conditioning area, all adopt the whole air system. This design adopts all-air system has the following advantages: use the entire air system can meet the processing requirements for air of all kinds, and facilitate the centralized regulation and maintenance; indoor air quality can be guaranteed easily and control. The initial investment and operation cost is small, fresh air volume adjustment is convenient and the service life is long. Spring and autumn can realize new wind blast, save energy, reduce operating costs; if the use of fan coil plus fresh air system, is required in the hall, the number of business premises, office equipment such as large standard width of a room large space layout more, the maintenance workload increased, water leakage possibility is big, and the repair is not easy, so, do not considering the fan-coil unit plus fresh air system. In addition, the entire air system is divided into a return air system and two secondary return air system, because the primary return air system in summer cooling capacity consists of indoor cooling load, fresh air cooling load and reheat system load, for comfort air conditioning supply air temperature difference is not strictly required, using an air conditioning system maximum air supply air temperature, dew point air, without consumption of energy, so it can save energy consumption. But the supply air temperature difference is too large, often caused by air condensation phenomenon, in order to avoid this problem, the primary return air conditioning system using reheat to solve the supply air temperature difference of the restricted problem, in order to ensure the wind temperature difference supply required, a return air system sometimes need to reheat in summer, resulting in cold and hot offset phenomenon. Air conditioning system is used two times two times return to reduce the temperature difference, achieves the purpose of saving energy, it saves the reheat load. However, due to the design of the air temperature difference is large enough, can point to send air conditioning system and a return air is relatively simple. Therefore, the entire air system designing use the primary return air system and the use of dew point air. Dew point air is refers to the air by the cooling treatment close to saturation state, into the room without heating.
Determine the system form, design and calculation of wind system. After Using the method to calculate cooling load, then according to each room air volume and area determine the diffuser specifications and number. Airflow design task is to effectively organize the indoor air flow, so that the air indoor work area temperature and humidity, speed and cleanliness can better meet the requirement of production and people's comfort requirements. Airflow in air-conditioned room is reasonable, not only directly affect the effect of air conditioning room, but also affects the energy consumption of air conditioning system. Many factors affect the airflow organization, such as the air outlet position and form, return air inlet position, various room geometry and indoor disturbance. So in the design process, how to reasonable arrange of the drawings is a very important task. In addition, the project adopts airflow organization form and sent back is because according to delivery, different inlet location and type, airflow organization form can be divided into the following five types: sent back, giving to the next, to the next, up-return down-supply and side. The diffuser should adopt and sent back the organization form. Up-supply down-return in airflow ratio and sent back more reasonable, uniform indoor air parameters, the problem does not exist to send, return airflow short flow, are also applicable to the room clear height of the higher places. However, it requires the return pipe connected to the lower part of the air conditioning room, which will occupy a certain area of the building, it is sometimes more difficult. Therefore, only the reasonable arrangement and conditions permit, only by this way.
Finally according to the calculated cold to select and design some silencing shock-absorbing system of cold and heat source system.
目录
1  绪论 1
1.1  空调技术的发展概况 1
1.2  空调系统的设计与建筑节能 2
1.3  空调的发展和前景 2
1.3.1  变频空调的发展 2
1.3.2  无氟空调的发展 2
1.3.3  舒适性空调的发展 3
1.3.4  一拖多 3
1.3.5  其它空调新技术的发展 3
1.4  空调系统的应急措施 4
1.5  综合楼的特点 4
1.6  设计的目的 5
2 工程概述 6
2.1  工程概述 6
2.2  室内外空气计算参数 6
2.2.1  室外空气计算参数 6
2.2.2  室内设计参数 6
2.3  建筑资料 7
3  负荷的计算 8
3.1  几种常见空调动态负荷计算的基本方法及原理介绍 8
3.2  国内外常用负荷计算软件介绍 8
3.2.1  国内常用负荷计算软件 8
3.2.2  国外常用负荷软件 9
3.2.3  软件的确定与选择 9
3.2  夏季冷负荷的计算 10
3.2.1  夏季冷负荷计算依据 10
3.2.2 冷负荷的计算过程及结果 13
4  空气处理方案的选择 17
4.1  空调系统的分类 17
4.1.1  全空气空调系统的优势 17
4.2  一次回风、二次回风空调系统比较 18
4.3  定风量与变风量系统的比较 18
4.4  空调系统形式的确定 18
5  送风状态参数及送风量的确定 20
5.1  新风量规定 20
5.2  一次回风空调系统 20
5.3  夏季风量和冷量的计算 20
6  空气处理设备的选型 23
7  冷热源的选择及设备选型 25
7.1  空气源热泵的定义 25
7.2 热泵的优势 25
7.3  冷水机组的选型 26
8  气流组织计算 27
8.1  概述 27
8.2  气流组织方案论证 27
8.2.1  风口形式的确定 27
8.2.2   气流组织形式的确定 27
8.3  散流器送风气流组织的计算 28
8.3.1  计算步骤 28
8.4  计算过程及结果 28
9  风系统的设计及计算 31
9.1  风管系统 31
9.1.1  概述 31
9.1.2  空调系统水力计算的特点 31
9.2  风管系统计算 31
10 水系统的设计 36
10.1  水系统方案的确定 36
10.1.1  两管制水系统的特点 36
10.1.2   闭式系统的特点 36
10.1.3  同程和异程系统的选择 36
10.1.4  一次泵变流量系统的选择依据 36
10.1.5  水系统方案的确定 37
10.2  冷冻水管路设计计算步骤 37
10.3  冷冻水供回水水力计算 38
10.4  冷冻水泵的选型 40
10.4.1  冷冻水泵设计规范 40
10.4.2  冷冻水泵的选型 41
10.5  冷凝水排放系统设计 41
10.6 膨胀水箱配置与计算 42
11 管道保温与系统消声、减震设计 44
11.1  管道保温 44
11.2  消声 44
11.3  系统减振 45
12  防排烟系统设计 46
致谢 48
主要参考文献 49
附录一 负荷计算表 50
附录二 每间房负荷计算详表 52
附录三 风系统水利计算表 59,3574

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