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英语和法语的区别及影响

更新时间:2009-4-6:  来源:毕业论文

英语和法语的区别及影响
[Abstract] Both French and English belong to the Indo-European Family. Since the Middle English period French has had strong influence on English. The influence of the French language upon the English language can be divided into two main stages. The first one is from 1066 to 1500. The decisive factor during this time is the Norman Conquest. A large number of French words poured into English as a part of English etymology, extending influence to grammar, spelling, pronunciation and word-formation. The second stage is from European Renaissance to the present globalization. With the increasing communication among economy, culture and technology, many foreign borrowings have been imported from different countries. French as a borrowing continues its contribution to the English vocabulary. By analyzing the fusion of the two languages, this paper tries to present the vocabulary evolution and its cultural connotation.
[Key Words] French; English; vocabulary; influence; Norman Conquest; naturalization

法语对英语的影响

【摘 要】 法语和英语同属于印欧语系,中古英语以来法语对英语就有着极其深刻的影响。法语对英语的影响主要分为两个阶段:第一阶段从1066年到1500年,在这一阶段诺曼征服是其决定性的因素。大量的法语词汇进入英语,构成了英语词源的一部分。其影响涉及语法、拼写、语音以及构词等方面。第二阶段是从欧洲的文艺复兴到现在加速世界一体化的信息时代。各国之间的文化相互渗透,经济、文化、科技密切联系。许多国家的词汇进入英语,法语作为外来语继续丰富着英语的词汇。本文通过分析两种语言的融合来探讨词汇的发展演变过程及其所反映的历史文化色彩。
【关键词】 法语;英语;词汇;影响;诺曼征服;归化

1. Introduction
    The development of a certain language has a long history. It’s inevitable that different languages influence and penetrate each other in their formation and development. In addition, a particular language assimilates the refined portion of other languages to enrich itself. English is the typical representative of this kind of language. As a cosmopolitan language, English has been greatly influenced by various languages, especially by French. Since the Middle English period French had a strong influence on English. The influence of the French language upon the English language can be divided into two main stages. The first stage is from Norman Conquest to 1500. One of the most influential factors is the Norman Conquest. At this stage the French was used by the upper class at first, and then the two languages fused together and at last the French was acknowledged by common people. The second stage is from 1500 to the present time. On the whole the most direct and observable impact manifests itself on the word borrowing. The scale of vocabulary is wide. We can find words relating to every aspect of human society, e.g. government, law, religion, military affairs, food and so on. Moreover, the degree of vocabulary influence is considerable. Some words are assimilated; some native words are lost while other words’ meanings are expanded. Besides, French also influences English grammar, spelling, pronunciation and word-formation. And now the influence is still going on.

2. Indo-European Family
The languages brought into relationship by descent or progressive differentiation from a parent speech are conveniently called a family of languages. It is assumed that there are roughly 300 language families in the world, and the Indo-European, one of these, is made up of most languages of Europe, the Near East, and India. The parent tongue from which the Indo-European languages have sprung had already became divided and scattered before the dawn of history. The surviving languages show various degrees of similarities to one another, the similarity bearing a more or less direct relationship to their geographical distribution. They accordingly fall into eleven principal groups: Indian, Iranian, Armenian, Hellenic, Albanian, Italic, Balto-Slavic, Germanic, Celtic, Hittite, and Tocharian. [1]
The Italic branch has its center in Italy, and to most people Italy in ancient times suggests Rome and the language of Rome, Latin. The various languages that represent the survival of Latin in the different parts of the Rome Empire are known as the Romance or Romanic languages. The most extensive of the Romance languages are French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. The common form that the languages of the Germanic branch had before they became differentiated is known as Germanic or Proto-Germanic. The languages descended from it fall into three groups: East Germanic, North Germanic, and West Germanic. West Germanic is the group to which English belongs. [2] In short, both French and English belong to the Indo-European Family.

3. Many English words coming from other languages, especially from French
As we know, the English language is of a mixed character. On one hand, it shares with West Germanic languages many common words and similar grammatical structures. On the other hand, more than half of the English vocabulary is derived from Latin, Greek, notably French.

4. The influence of the French language upon the English language
4.1 The social background of the influence
4.1.1 The origin of Normandy
On the northern coast of France is a district known as Normandy. It derives its name from the bands of Northmen who settled there in the ninth and tenth centuries. The Normans had soon absorbed the most important elements of French civilization. They gave up their own language and learned French. For some years before the Norman Conquest the relations between England and Normandy had been fairly close. In 1002 Ærhelred the Unready had married a Norman wife and their son Edward, who had thus been brought up in France, was almost more French than English. In 1042, Edward was restored to the throne and he brought with him a number of his Norman friends and gave them important places in the government. A strong French atmosphere pervaded the English court during the twenty-four years of his reign.


4.1.2 The Norman invasion
At his succession the most influential noble was Godwin, earl of the West Saxon earldom. His eldest son, Harold, was elected king when Edward died in 1066. But his election did not long go unchallenged. William, the duke of Normandy at this time, was a second cousin to the late king. Although this relationship did not give him any right of inheritance to the English throne, he had nevertheless been living in expectation of becoming Edward’s successor. He hoped to obtain the crown by force. On September 1066, William landed at Pevensey, on the south coast of England, with a formidable force. Harold was killed during the battle and the English were soon in full retreat. On Christmas Day 1066, William was crowned king of England.

4.1.3 The Norman Settlement
William’s possession of the throne had been a matter of conquest and was attended by all the consequences of the conquest of one people by another. One of the most important of these consequences was the introduction of a new nobility. For several generations after the Conquest the important positions and the great estates were almost always held by Normans or men of foreign blood. Similarly, Norman prelates were gradually introduced into all important positions in the church. It is less easy to speak with certainty of the Normans in the lower walks of life who came into England with William’s army. Many of them doubtless remained in the island, and their number was increased by constant accretions throughout the rest of the eleventh century and the whole of the next. Likewise merchants and craftsmen from the continent seem to have settled in England in considerable numbers. It is quite impossible to say how many Normans and French people settled in England, but because the governing class in both church and state was almost exclusively made up from among them, their influence was out of all proportion to their number.

4.2 The influence of French upon English in the Middle English period
4.2.1 The use of French by the upper class
Whatever the actual number of Normans settled in England, it is clear that the members of the new ruling class were sufficiently predominant to continue to use their own language. This was natural enough at first, as they knew no English; but they continued to do so for a long time to come, picking up some knowledge of English gradually but making no effort to do so as a matter of policy. For 200 years after the Norman Conquest, French remained the language of ordinary intercourse among the upper classes in England. The nobility chose to maintain French as the language of society, administration and commerce. [3] At first those who spoke French were those of Norman origin, but soon through intermarriage and association with the ruling class numerous people of English extraction must have found it to their advantage to learn the new language, and before long the distinction between those who spoke French and those who spoke English was not ethnic but largely social. The most important factor in the continued use of French by the English upper class until the beginning of the thirteenth century was the close connection that existed through all these years between England and the continent. The subjugated English were not killed off, nor were they driven from their country. They were relegated to the status of an inferior people, good swineherds and servants. Therefore, England became a bilingual country.
The Normans belonged to a race of Scandinavian origin, but during the residence in Normandy they had given up their native language and had adopted the French dialect of that region. The Normans introduced into England a variety of the French language we call Norman-French, the other variety is Parisian French. By the end of the thirteenth century Parisian French began to enter England, and more still in the fifteenth century. A large number of French words made their appearance in the works of Chaucer and other English writers, especially in many English translations of French literary works published at that time.

4.2.2 Fusion of the two peoples and two languages
In the years following the Norman Conquest the sting of defeat and the hardships incident to so great a political and social disturbance were gradually forgotten. People accepted the new order as something accomplished; they accepted it as a fact and adjusted themselves to it. The fusion of Normans and English was rapid. And the early fusion of French and English in England is quite clear from a variety of evidences. It is evident in the marriage of Normans to English women. It is evident from the way in which the English gave their support to their rulers and Norman prelates. It is evident in many other ways. Everywhere there are signs of convergence.

4.2.3 Knowledge of French among the middle class
If by the end of the twelfth century the knowledge of English was not unusual among members of the highest class, it seems equally clear that the knowledge of French was often found somewhat further down in the social scale. In fact the knowledge of French may sometimes have extended to the free tenants. So the two languages fused together and influenced each other.

4.2.4 French influence on the vocabulary
The influence of the French language upon the English language is direct and evident. It is much more observable from the vocabulary. Where the two languages exist side by side for a long time and the relations between the people speaking them are as intimate as they were in England, a considerable transference of words from one language to the other is inevitable. [4] The number of French words that poured into English was unbelievably great. There is nothing comparable to it in the previous or subsequent history of the language. In the influx of French words two stages can be observed, an earlier and a later, with the year 1250 as the approximate dividing line. [5] When we study the French words appearing in English before 1250, roughly 900 in number, we find that many of them were such as the lower classes would become familiar with through contact with a French-speaking nobility, e.g. baron, noble, dame, servant, messenger, feast, minstrel, juggler, largess, story, rime, lay, etc.[6]
In the period after 1250 the conditions under which French words had been making their way into English were supplemented by a new and powerful factor-those who had been accustomed to speak French were turning in increasingly to the use of English. In changing from French to English they transferred much of their governmental and administrative vocabulary, their ecclesiastical, legal, and military terms, their familiar words of fashion, food, and social life, the vocabulary of art, learning, and medicine. In general we may say that in the earlier Middle English period the French words introduced into English were such as people speaking one language often learn from those speaking or learning to speak English, they were also such words as people who had been accustomed to speak French would carry over with them into the language of their adoption. Only in this way can we understand the nature and extent of the French importations in this period.
We can find words relating to every aspect of human society:
(1) Governmental and administrative words
We should expect that English would owe many of its words dealing with government and administration to the language of those who for more than 200 years made public affairs their chief concern. The words government, administer might appropriately introduce a list of such words. It would include such fundamental terms as crown, state, empire, realm, reign, royal, prerogative, authority, sovereign, majesty, scepter, tyrant, usurp, oppress, court, council, parliament, assembly, statute, treaty, alliance, record, record, repeal, adjourn, tax, subsidy, revenue, tally, exchequer. Intimately associated with the idea of government are also words like subject, allegiance, rebel, traitor, treason, exile, public, liberty. The word office and the titles of many offices are likewise French: chancellor, treasurer, chamberlain, marshal, governor, councilor, minister, viscount, warden, castellan, mayor, constable, coroner, and even the humble crier. Except for the words king and queen, lord, lady, and earl, most designations of rank are French: noble, nobility, peer, prince, princess, duke, duchess, count, countess, marquis, baron, squire, page, as well as such words as courtier, retinue, sir, madam, mistress. The list might well be extended to include words relating to the economic organization of society-manor, demesne, bailiff, vassal, homage, peasant, bondman, slave, servant, and caitiff-since they often have a political or administrative aspect.
(2) Ecclesiastical words
The church was scarcely second to the government as an object of Norman interest and ambition. The higher clergy, occupying positions of wealth and power, were, as we have seen, practically all Normans. Ecclesiastical preferment opened the way to a career that often led to the highest political offices at court. In monasteries and religious houses French was for a long time the usual language. Accordingly we find in English such French words as religion, theology, sermon, homily, sacrament, baptism, communion, confession, penance, prayer, orison, lesson, passion, psalmody; such indications of rank or class as clergy, clerk, prelate, cardinal, legate, dean, chaplain, parson, pastor, vicar, sexton, abbess, novice, friar, hermit; the names of objects associated with the service or with the religious life, such as crucifix, crosier, miter, surplice, censer, incense, lectern, image, chancel, chantry, chapter, abbey, convent, priory, hermitage, cloister, sanctuary; words expressing such fundamental religious or theological concepts as creator, savior, trinity, virgin, saint, miracle, mystery, faith, heresy, schism, reverence, devotion, sacrilege, simony, temptation, damnation, penitence, contrition, remission, absolution, redemption, salvation, immortality; and the more general virtues of piety, sanctity, charity, mercy, pity, obedience, as well as the word virtue itself. We should include also a number of adjectives, like solemn, divine, reverend, devout, and verbs, such as preach, pray, chant, repent, confess, adore, sacrifice, convert, anoint, ordain.
(3) Law
French was so long the language of the law courts in England that the greater part of the English legal vocabulary comes from the language of the conquerors. The fact that we speak of justice and equity instead of gerihte, judgment rather than dom, crime in place of synn, gylt, undæd, etc., shows how completely we have adopted the terminology of French law. Even where the Old English word survives it has lost its technical sense. In the same way we say bar, assize, eyre, plea, suit, plaintiff, defendant, judge, advocate, attorney, bill, petition, complaint, inquest, summons, hue and cry, indictment, jury, juror, panel, felon, evidence, proof, bail, ransom, mainpernor, judgment, verdict, sentence, decree, award, fine, forfeit processes: sue, plead, implead, accuse, indict, arraign, depose, blame, arrest, seize, pledge, warrant, assail, assign, judge, condemn, convict, award, amerce, distrain, imprison, banish, acquit, pardon. The names of many crimes and misdemeanors are French: felony, trespass, assault, arson, larceny, fraud, libel, slander, perjury, adultery, and many others. Suits involving property brought into use such words as property, estate, tenement, chattels, appurtenances, encumbrance, bounds, seisin, tenant, dower, legacy,  patrimony, heritage, heir, executor, entail. Common adjectives like just, innocent, culpable have obvious legal import though they are also of wider application., punishment, prison, gaol, pillory. We have likewise a rich array of verbs associated with legal
(4) Army and navy
The large part that war played in English affairs in the Middle Ages, the fact that the control of the army and navy was in the hands of those who spoke French, and the circumstance that much of English fighting was done in France all resulted in the introduction into English of a number of French military terms. The art of war has undergone such changes since the days of Hastings and Lewes and Agincourt that many words once common are now obsolete or only in historical use. Their places have been taken by later borrowings, often likewise from French, many of them being words acquired by the French in the course of their wars in Italy during the sixteenth century. Nevertheless we still use medieval French words when we speak of the army and the navy, of peace, enemy, arms, battle, combat, skirmish, siege, defense, ambush, stratagem, retreat, soldier, garrison, guard, spy, and we have kept the names of officers such as captain, lieutenant, sergeant. We recognize as once having had greater significance words like dart, lance, banner, mail, buckler, hauberk, archer, chieftain, portcullis, barbican, and moat. Sometimes we have retained a word while forgetting its original military significance. The word “Havoc!” was originally an order giving an army the signal to commence plundering and seizing spoil. Verbs like to arm, array, harness, brandish, vanquish, besiege, defend, among many, suffice to remind us of this important French element in our vocabulary.
(5) Fashion, meals and social life
That the upper classes should have set the standard in fashion and dress is so obvious an assumption that the number of French words belonging to this class occasions no surprise. The words fashion and dress are themselves French, as are apparel, habit, gown, robe, garment, attire, cape, cloak, coat, frock, collar, veil, train, chemise, petticoat. So too are lace, embroidery, pleat, gusset, buckle, button, tassel, plume, and the names of such articles as kerchief, mitten, garter, galoshes, and boots, Verbs like embellish, and adorn often occur in contexts which suggest the word luxury, and this in turn carries with it satin, taffeta, fur, sable, beaver, ermine. The colors blue, brown, vermilion, scarlet, saffron, russet, and tawny are French borrowings of this period. Jewel, ornament, brooch, chaplet, ivory, and enamel point to the luxuries of the wealthy, and it is significant that the names of all the more familiar precious stones are French: turquoise, amethyst, topaz, garnet, ruby, emerald, sapphire, pearl, diamond, not to mention crystal, coral, and beryl.
The French-speaking classes, it would seem, must also be credited with a considerable adornment of the English table. Not only are the words dinner and supper French, but also the words feast, repast, collation, and mess (now military). So, too, are appetite, taste, victuals, viand, and sustenance. One could have found on the medieval menu, had there been one, among the fish, mackerel, sole, perch, bream, sturgeon, salmon, sardine, oyster, porpoise; among meats venison, beef, veal, mutton, pork, bacon, sausage, tripe, with a choice of loin, chine, haunch, or brawn, and with gravy included; among fowl, poultry, pullet, pigeon, and various game birds mentioned below. One could have pottage, gruel, toast, biscuit, cream, sugar, olives, salad, lettuce, endive, and for dessert almonds, and many fruits, including raisin, fig, date, grape, orange, lemon, pomegranate, cherry, peach, or a confection, pasty, tart, jelly, treacle. Among seasoning and condiments we find spice, clove, thyme, herb, mustard, vinegar, marjoram, cinnamon, nutmeg. The verbs roast, boil, parboil, stew, fry, broach, blanch, grate, and mince describe various culinary processes, and goblet, saucer, cruet, plate, platter suggest French refinements in the serving of meals. It is melancholy to think what the English dinner table would have been like had there been no Norman Conquest.
A variety of new words suggest the innovations made by the French in domestic economy and social life. Arras, curtain, couch, chair, cushion, screen, lamp, lantern, sconce, chandelier, blanket, quilt, coverlet, counterpane, towel, and basin indicate articles of comfort or convenience, while dais, parlor, wardrobe, closet, pantry, scullery, and garner imply improvements in domestic arrangements. Recreation, solace, jollity, leisure, dance, carol, revel, minstrel, juggler, fool, ribald, lute, tabor, melody, music, chess, checkers, dalliance, and conversation reveal various types of horse, together with ambler, courser, hackney, palfrey, rouncy, stallion rein, curb, crupper, rowel, curry, trot, stable, harness, mastiff, terrier, spaniel, leash, kennel, scent, retrieve, falcon, merlin, tercelet, mallard, partridge, pheasant, quail, plover, heron, squirrel, forest, park, covert, warren. One might extend the list to include other activities, with terms like joust, tournament, pavilion, but those given are sufficient to show how much the English vocabulary owes to French in matters of domestic and social life.
(6) Art, learning and medicine
The cultural and intellectual interests of the ruling class are reflected in words pertaining to the arts, architecture, literature, learning, and science, especially medicine. Such words as art, painting, sculpture, music, beauty, color, figure, image, tone are typical of the first class, while architecture and building have given us cathedral, palace, mansion, chamber, ceiling, joist, cellar, garret, chimney, lintel, latch, lattice, wicket, tower, pinnacle, turret, porch, bay, choir, cloister, baptistry, column, pillar, base, and many similar words. Literature is represented by thr word itself and by poet, rime, prose, romance, lay, story, chronicle, tragedy, prologue, preface, title, volume, chapter, quire, parchment, vellum, paper, and pen, and learning by treatise, compilation, study, logic, geometry, grammar, noun, clause, gender, together with verbs like copy, expound, and compile. Among the sciences, medicine has brought in the largest number of early French words still in common use, among them the word medicine itself, chirurgy, physician, surgeon, apothecary, malady, debility, distemper, pain, ague, palsy, pleurisy, gout, jaundice, leper, paralytic, plague, pestilence, contagion, anatomy, stomach, pulse, remedy, ointment, balm, pellet, alum, arsenic, niter, sulphur, alkali, poison. It is clear that the arts and sciences, being largely cultivated or patronized by the higher classes, owe an important part of their vocabulary to French. [7]
Such classes of words as have been illustrated in the foregoing paragraphs indicate important departments in which the French language altered the English vocabulary in the Middle Ages. But they do not sufficiently indicate how very general was the adoption of French words in every province of life and thought. One has only to glance over a miscellaneous list of words-nouns, adjectives, verbs-to realize how universal was the French contribution. In the nouns we may consider the range of ideas in the following list, made up of words which were already in English by 1300: action, adventure, affection, age, air, bucket, bushel, calendar, carpenter, cheer, city, coast, comfort, cost, country, courage, courtesy, coward, crocodile, cruelty, damage, debt, deceit, dozen, ease, envy, error, face, faggot, fame, fault, flower, folly, force, gibbet, glutton, grain, grief, gum, harlot, honor, hour, jest, joy, labor, leopard, malice, manner, marriage, mason, metal, mischief, mountain, noise, number, ocean, odor, opinion, order, pair, people, peril, person, pewter, piece, point, poverty, powder, power, quality, quart, rage, rancor, reason, river, scandal, seal, season, sign, sound, sphere, spirit, square, strife, stubble, substance, sum, tailor, task, tavern, tempest, unity, use, vision, waste. The same universality is shown in the adjective. Here the additions were of special importance since Old English was not very well provided with adjective distinctions. From nearly a thousand French adjectives in Middle English we may consider the following selection, all the words in this list being in use in Chaucer’s time: able, abundant, active, actual, amiable, amorous, barren, blank, brief, calm, certain, chase, chief, clear, common, contrary, courageous, courteous, covetous, coy, cruel, curious, debonair, double, eager, easy, faint, feeble, fierce, final, firm, foreign, frail, frank, gay, gentle, gracious, hardy, hasty, honest, horrible, innocent, jolly, large, liberal, luxurious, malicious, mean, moist, natural, nice, obedient, original, perfect, pertinent, plain, pliant, poor, precious, principal, probable, proper, pure, quaint, real, rude, safe, sage, savage, scarce, second, secret, simple, single, sober, solid, special, stable, stout, strange, sturdy, subtle, sudden, supple, sure, tender, treacherous, universal, usual. A list of the verbs borrowed at the same time shows equal diversity. Examples are: advance, advise, aim, allow, apply, approach, arrange, arrive, betray, butt, carry, chafe, change, chase, close, comfort, commence, complain, conceal, consider, continue, count, cover, covet, cry, cull, deceive, declare, defeat, defer, defy, delay, desire, destroy, embrace, enclose, endure, enjoy, enter, err, excuse, flatter, flourish, force, forge, form, furnish, grant, increase, inform, inquire, join, languish, launch, marry, mount, move, murmur, muse, nourish, obey, oblige, observe, pass, pay, pierce, pinch, please, practise, praise, prefer, proceed, propose, prove, purify, pursue, push, quash, quit, receive, refuse, rejoice, relieve, remember, reply, rinse, rob, satisfy, save, scald, serve, spoil, strange, strive, stun, succeed, summon, suppose, surprise, tax, tempt, trace, travel, tremble, trip, wait, waive, waste, wince. Finally, the influence of French may be seen in numerous phrases and turns of expression, such as to take leave, to draw near, to hold one’s peace, to come to a head, to do justice, or make believe, hand to hand, on the point of, according to, subject to, at large, by heart, in vain, without fail.[8]
From the above lists we can see that loan-words from French came into English not only in large numbers but as words commonly used in Modern English. They are everyday words which constitute an important part of the English vocabulary.

4.2.5 Assimilation, Loss of native words, Differentiation in meaning of the two languages and Naturalization of the language
(i) Assimilation
The rapidity with which the new French words were assimilated is evidenced by the promptness with which many of them became the basis of derivatives. English endings were apparently added to them with as much freedom as to English words. For example, the adjective gentle is recorded in 1225 and within five years we have it compounded with an English noun to make gentlewoman (1230). A little later we find gentleman (1275), gentleness (1300), and gently (1330). These compounds and derivatives all occur within about a century of the time when the original adjective was adopted. In the same way we have faith (1250) giving faithless and faithful (both by 1300), faithfully (1362), and faithfulness (1388), as well as the obsolete faithly (1325). The adverbial ending -ly seems to have been added to adjectives almost as soon as they appeared in the language. Some adverbs occur almost as early as the adjectives from which they are derived. It is clear that the new French words were quietly assimilated, and enter into an easy and natural fusion with the native element in English. [9]

(ii) Loss of native words
The other case is the loss of native words. After the Norman Conquest, duplications frequently resulted, for many of the French words that came into use bore meanings already expressed by a native word. In such cases one of two things happened: of the two words one was eventually lost, or, where both survived, they were differentiated in meaning. In some cases the French word disappeared, but in a great many cases it was the old English word that died out. The substitution was not always immediate; often both words continued in use for a longer or short time, and the English word occasionally survives in the dialects today. Thus the OE ēam, which has been replaced in the standard speech by the French word uncle, is still in use (eme) in Scotland. The OE anda contested its position with the French envy until the time of Chaucer, but eventually lost out and with it went the adjective andig (envious) and the verb andian (to envy). In this way many common Old English words succumbed. The OE æpele yielded to F.noble, and æpeling became nobleman. Dryhten and frēa were displaced by the French prince, although the English word lord, which survived as a synonym, helped in the elimination. At the same time leod was being ousted by people. Here likewise the words in parentheses are the French verbs that replaced the native word. Not all the Old English words that have disappeared were driven out by French equivalents. Some gave way to other more or less synonymous words in Old English. Many independently fell into disuse. Nevertheless the enormous invasion of French word not only took the place of many English words that had been lost but itself accounts for a great many of the losses from the Old English vocabulary. [10] 

(iii) Expansion of meaning
Where both the English and the French words survived they were generally differentiated in meaning. We have kept a number of words for smell. The common word in Old English was stench. During the Middle English period this was supplemented by the word smell (of unknown origin) and the French words aroma, odor, and scent. To these we have since added stink (for the verb) and perfume and fragrance, from French. Most of these have special connotations and smell has become the general word. Stench now always means an unpleasant smell. An interesting group of words illustrating the principle is ox, sheep, swine, and calf beside the French equivalents beef, mutton, pork, and veal. The French words primarily denoted the animal, as they still do, but in English they were used from the beginning to distinguish the meat from the living beast. In most of these cases where duplication occurred, the French word, when it came into English, was a close synonym of the corresponding English word. The discrimination between them has been a matter of gradual growth, but it justifies the retention of both words in the language. [11]

(iv) Naturalization of the language
From the French loaned words mentioned above, we know most of the borrowings were naturalized in form and sound.

4.2.6 French influence on the other aspects of English
(i) Grammar
 The French influences on the English language brought about great changes not only in its vocabulary but also in its usages and grammar.
(1) The decay of inflectional endings, the loss of grammatical gender and the conquest simplification of English grammar were due to the influence of French directly or indirectly in the Middle English period. After the Norman Conquest the inflections of the nouns and adjectives became greatly reduced. The English language changed gradually from a synthetic language to an analytic language. (French was an analytic language).
(2) Some adjective phrases with post-modifier position were influenced by French, e.g. a thing immortal, the body politic, the poet laureate, heirs male, the people involved, the people concerned, the people interested, the house ablaze, anything interesting, anywhere quiet, a problem difficult to solve, the boys easiest to teach, Lords temporal, etc.
(3) The expressions of some English verb phrases imitated those of French, e.g. to take advantage (F. prendre avantage), to take end (F. prendre fin), to take leave (F. prendre conge), to take at random (F. prendre à random), etc.
(4) The expressions of some English prepositional phrases imitated those of French, e.g. by cause that (=because, F. à cause que), by so that (F. par si que), for why (F. por quoi), all be it that (F. tout soit il que), in vain (F. en vain), in general (F. en gènèral), in effect (F. en effect), in fact (F. en fait), on point to (F. sur le point de), etc.
(5) Some English idiomatic use came from the imitation of French, e.g. to come rynande (=to come running F. venir courant), How does my lord? (F. Que fait mes sires?), do bind him (F. faites-le-lier), etc. [12]
(6) Some common native verbs were replaced by French, e.g. andettan by confess, dihtan by compose, gōdian by improve, herian by praise, miltsian by pity, etc
(7) The use of you instead of ye and thee also shows the influence of French. Originally English made a distinction between thou, used to address one person, and the plural ye for more than one person. These were subject forms, e.g. thou art my friend, ye are my friends, and contrasted with thee and you used for the object or after a preposition, cf. I saw thee/you; I gave it to thee/you. Two types of change take place in this system. First, the ambiguity of French vous is recreated in English, and you takes over the functions of ye, so that it becomes grammatical to say you are my friends. The other change is that you takes over the functions of thou, so that the distinction between singular and plural is lost.
(8) The use of who was remodeled on French qui. Old English used hwa (‘who’) to ask a question such as who did it?, and this corresponds to one use of qui. But French also used qui in a relative clause such as the man who lives next door, for which Old English used the completely different word pe. Under French influence, Middle English began to use who as a relative pronoun. [13]

(ii) Spelling and pronunciation
Influenced by French certain spellings and pronunciations of Old English changed after the Norman Conquest.
(1) The letter u pronounced [u:] was changed into the letter groups ou ow pronounced [au], e.g. hūs [hu: s] → house [haus], rūt [ru: t] → rout [raut], cū [ku:] → cow [kau], etc.
(2) The pronunciation of the letter ī pronounced [i:] was changed into [ai], e.g. īs [i:s] → ice [ais], līf [li:f] → life [laif], rīdan [ri:da:n] → ride [raid], rīsan[ri:sa:n] → rise [rais], drīfan [dri:fa:n] → drife [draif], etc.
(3) The letters v j were introduced into English by the Normans, e.g. five, drive, joint and ajar, etc.
(4) The letter ӡ was a French letter which was used as an English one in the early Middle English period, e.g. thoӡ (=though), ðoӡt (=thought), ӡer (=year), etc.
(5) The letter groups ai ei oe ui and oi were French spellings which were used in the words of Middle English, e.g. compaignye, deintee, people, build, bruise, noise, boy, etc.

(iii) Word-formation
In the centuries following the Norman Conquest, a number of hybrids appeared in the English vocabulary. On one hand many French affixes, such as -able, -ment, -ess, -ry, -age, -ance, etc. were added to native roots to form a lot of new words, e.g. answerable, bearable, eatable, likeable, readable, argument, endearment, fulfillment, segment, goddess, shepherdess, murderess, dwelleress, slayeress, seeress, husbandry, yeomanry, outlawry, cleavage, leakage, steerage, furtherance, etc. On the other hand, many native affixes, such as -dom, -est, -ful, -er, –hood, -ing, -less, -ly, -ness, -ship, -some, -wise, etc. were added to French roots to form a host of new words, e.g. dukedom, noblest, powerful, preacher, falsehood, preaching, colorless, princely, faintness, courtship, quarrelsome, costwise, faithfully, peacefully, powerfully, commonly, courteously, eagerly, feebly, fiercely, and justly, etc. [14]

4.3 The influence of French upon English after the Middle English period
4.3.1 The breadth of influence
After Middle English period, modern English vocabulary develops through several channels. Borrowing as one of its channels has played a vital role in the development of vocabulary. Thirty percent of them come from French. The words are connected chiefly with arts, with food and drink, with fashion and with diplomacy.
Words connected with arts are:
baroque, baton, matinee, nocturne, renaissance, repertoire, resume, etc.
Words connected with food and drink include:
bonbon, café, chef, menu, restaurant, sauté, etc.
Words connected with fashion, dress, and materials are:
beret, blouse, corsage, crochet, etc.
Among diplomatical terms we find:
a chargé d’affires ad interim, attaché, chargé d’affires, communism, dossier, entente, laisser-faire, secretariat, etc. 
Among the common words adopted in the twentieth century are:
après-ski(social activity after a day’s skiing), avant-garde, black humor, détente, discothèque(a night club or other place of entertainment where customers or performers dance, sing, etc. to record music), extraordinaire, georgette, hangar, limousine, negotiant, revue, etc. [15]

4.3.2 The characteristics of influence
(1) The vocabulary English borrowed from French in this period was not naturalized. The spelling and pronunciation remained unchanged. They are called aliens, e.g. automobile [΄ɔ:təməubi:l], bourgeois [΄buәӡwa], bourgeoisie [buәӡwa:΄ӡi:], coup de main [ku:do΄mεn], cafè [kə΄fe], coup d΄ètat [ku:dei΄ta:], elite [ei΄li:t], reservoir [΄rezəvwa:], repertoire [΄rεpətwa:], trou-de-loup [tru:də΄lu:], bêche-de-mer [beiʃdə΄mεə], etc.
(2) One of the important features in the Renaissance was the recognition in the fields where Latin had been supreme. A strong tradition sanctioned the use of Latin in all the fields of knowledge. This tradition was strengthened by the “revival of learning”, in which the records of Greek civilization became once more available in the original. Latin and Greek were not only the key to the world’s knowledge but also the languages in which much highly esteemed poetry, oratory, and philosophy were to be read. Therefore, Latin and Greek words poured into English directly or through French, e.g. L. bombax → F. bombace → E.M.E. bombast; L. detailer → F.detail →E.M.E. detail; l. voluntārius → F. voluntaire → E.M.E. volunteer, etc.
(3) The influence of the Renaissance on English vocabulary was great and far-reaching in the Early Modern English period. Thousands of foreign words infused English. English borrowed words from more than fifty languages, such as Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, Jewish, Persian, Chinese and Japanese, etc. The adopted words not only reflected the new cultural movement of the Renaissance, the religion reform, the geographical discovery, the voyage, the exploration and the activities of immigrants and colonization, resulting in the increase, in a large number, of English vocabulary.
(4) Modern science and technology bring about the addition of new words without numbers. They are the most important source of new words in English. Modern science and technology contain many new branches apart from the existing fields. The appearance of new branches in modern science and technology gives rise to a great number of new words have been created and invented by the people all over the world, including the French people.
The English vocabulary changes with the development of society. The rate of vocabulary changes varies from age to age. In the Middle English period vast numbers of French words were introduced into the English language. In the sixteenth century large numbers of new words were borrowed from Latin and Greek directly or through French. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there was a great expansion in the vocabulary of science and technology. Most of the neologisms are coined by the people all over the world, including the French people.

5. Conclusion
From the aspects mentioned above, it’s clear that the influence of the French language upon the English language involves every linguistic level, including phonetics, grammar and lexicon. Lexicon influence is especially prominent, which concerns almost all walks of life in the society. In short, the influence of the French language upon the English language is great, deep and permanent.

Bibliography
[1] Albert C. Baugh and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language[M]. Peking: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press,2001,9 P20-21
[2] 汪榕培.英语词汇学高级教程[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002,11 P105
[3] Barbara A. Fennell. A History of English[M].Peking: Peking University Press,2005 P118
[4] 张维友.英语词汇学教程[M].武汉:华中师范大学出版社,2001,8 P28
[5] 汪榕培,王之江,吴晓维.英语词汇学教程读本[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,2005,1 P196
[6] 张维友.英语词汇学[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1997,8 P30
[7] 同[1] P165-168
[8] 同[1] P169-170
[9] 同[1] P174-175
[10] 同[1] P175-176
[11] 同[1] P176-177
[12] Ferdinand Brunot. Concise History of the English Language[M].Peking: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press,2000,8 P82
[13] Gerry Knowles. A Cultural History of the English Language[M].Peking: Peking University Press,2004 P57-58
[14] Garland Cannon. A History of the English Language[M].Peking: China Translation and Publishing Corporation,1987,9 P132

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