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英语科技论文

更新时间:2009-7-8:  来源:毕业论文
英语科技论文
Research paper format
The organizational format for all experimental research reports is basically the same, regardless of the field of study (e.g. Education, Economics, Psychology, Management, Biology, Engineering, Business, Sociology, Animal Science, Language, etc.) in which the author is working.
l Abstract
l Introduction (literature review)
l Method
l Results
l Discussion (conclusions+ implications)
2. Steps in beginning the research process
l Select an area of interest
l Focus on one aspect of the area
l Write a research question
l Formulate a hypothesis
l Design the study
A research question (the basis on which the study is planned and carried out) → a hypothesis (a possible response to the research question/ a statement of expected results) → a designed quantitative study (numerical data) to reject or support the hypothesis → statistical tests (tables and graphs) → a discussion of the results → conclusions → a bibliography (a list of references) → a brief summary or an abstract (covering the most important information in the report)
Order of Typical Elements Included in an Abstract
B= some backgroundinformation
P= the principal activity (or purpose) of the study and its scope
M= some information about the methodology used in the study
R= the most important results of the studyC= a statement of conclusion or recommendation
Abstract: Verb Tenses
B Background information (present tense)
Example: One of the basic principles of communication is that the message should be understood by the intended audience.
P Principal activity (past tense/present perfect tense)
Example: In this study the readability of tax booklets from nine states was evaluated.Example: Net energy analyses have been carried out for eight
trajectories which convert energy source into heated domestic water.
M Methodology (past tense)
Example: Children performed a 5-trial task.
R Results (past tense)
Example: Older workers surpassed younger ones in both speed and skill jobs.
C Conclusions (present tense/ tentative verbs/ modal auxiliaries)Example: The results suggest that the presence of unique sets of industry factors can be used to explain variation in economic growth.
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