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更新时间:2009-9-6:  来源:毕业论文

Passage l
       It's a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your door-
mat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove
failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or
so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable
for their customers' misfortunes.
       Feeling threatened , companies responded by writing ever-longer warning labels, trying to
anticipate every possibLe accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn ,
among other things, that you might-surprise! --fall off. The label on a child ' s Batman cape
cautions that the toy "does not enable user to fly. "
       While warnings are often appropriate and necessary--the dangers of drug interactions, for
example--and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually
protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of
the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.
       Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before, some
courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably
wouldn't have changed anything. In May , Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois,
successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wear-
ing a Schutt helmet. "We' re really sorry he has become paralyzed , but helmets aren' t designed to
prevent those kinds of injuries , " says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not
the helmet, was the reason for the athlete's injury. At the same time, the American Law Insti-
tute--a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial
weight-issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of ob-
vious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. " Important information can
get buried in a sea of trivialities, " says a law professor at Cornell law School who helped draft the
new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on prod-
ucts might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal lia-
bility. .
51 . What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?
[A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.
[B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.
[C]Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.
[D]Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.
52. Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to__
[A]satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products
[B]become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products
[C]make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability
[D]feel obliged to view customers' safety as their first concern
53. The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that__
[A]some injury claims were no longer supported by law
[B]helmets were not designed to prevent injuries
[C]product labels would eventually be discarded
[D]some sports games might lose popularity with athletes
54. The author' s attitude towards the issue seems to be__
[A] biased [ B] indifferent [ C] puzzling [D]objective
Passage 2
       In the first year or so of Web business, most of the action has revolved around efforts to tap
the consumer market. More recently, as the Web proved to be more than a fashion, companies
have started to buy and sell products and services with one another. Such business-to-business
sales make sense because businesspeople typically know what product they're looking for.
       Nonetheless, many companies still hesitate to use the Web because of doubts about its relia-
bility. "Businesses need to feel they can trust the pathway between them and the supplier, " says
senior analyst Blane Erwin of Forrester Research. Some companies are limiting the risk by con-
ducting online transactions only with established business partners who are given access to the
company ' s private internet .
       Another major shift in the model for Internet commerce concerns the technology available for
marketing. Until recently, Internet marketing activities have focused on strategies to "pull" cus-
tomers into sites. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow
companies to "push" information directly out to consumers , transmitting marketing messages di-
rectly to targeted customers. Most notably, the Pointcast Network uses a screen saver to deliver a
continualiy updated stream of news and advertisements to subscribers' computer monitors. Sub-
scribers can customize the information they want to receive and proceed directly to a company ' s
Web site. Companies such as Virtual Vineyards are already starting to use similar technologies to
push messages to customers about special sales, product offerings, or other events. But push tech-
nology has earned the contempt of many Web users. Online culture thinks highly of the notion
that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. Once commercial
promotion begins to fill the screen uninvited, the distinction between the Web and television
fades. That's a prospect that horrifies Net purists.
       But it is hardly inevitable that companies on the Web will need to resort to push strategies to
make money. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a
Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and se-
curity will attract online customers. And the cost of computing power continues to free fall,
which is a good sign for any enterprise setting up shop in silicon. People looking back 5 or 10
years from now may well wonder why so few companies took the online plunge.
55 . We learn from the beginning of the passage that Web business__
[A] has been striving to expand its market
[B]intended to follow a fanciful fashion
[C]tried but in vain to control the market
[D]has been booming for one year or so
56. Speaking of the online technology available for marketing, the author implies that__
[A] the technology is popular with many Web users
[B]businesses have faith in the reliability of online transactions
[C]there is a radical change in strategy
[D] it is accessible limitedly to established partners
57. In the view of Net purists,__
[A]there should be no marketing messages in online culture
[ B]money making should be given priority to on the Web
[C]the Web should be able to function as the television set
[D] there should be no online commercial information without requests
58. We learn from the last paragraph that __
[A]pushing information on the Web is essential to Internet commerce
[ B] interactivity , hospitality and security are important to online customers
[ C]leading companies began to take the online plunge decades ago
[D]setting up shops in silicon is independent of the cost of computing power
Passage 3
       An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of stu-
dents' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of
radical educational reform. Very few writers on the subject have explored this distinction-in-
deed, contradiction--which goes to the heart of what is wrong with the campaign to put comput-
ers in the classroom.
       An education that aims at getting a student a certain kind of job is a technical education, jus-
tified for reasons radically different from why education is universally required by law. It is not
simply to raise everyone' s job prospects that all children are legally required to attend school into
their teens. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is in-
complete if he cannot competently assess how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things
outside of himself. But this was not always the case; before it was legally required for all children
to attend school until a certain age, It was widely accepted that some were just not equipped by
nature to pursue this kind of education. With optimism characteristic of all industrialized coun-
tries , we came to accept that everyone is fit to be educated. Computer-education advocates forsake
this optimistic notion for a pessimism that betrays their otherwise cheery outlook. Banking on the
confusion between educational and vocational reasons for bringing computers into schools, com-
puter-ed advocates often emphasize the job prospects of graduates over their educational achieve-
ment .
       There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right kind of student.
Many European schools introduce the concept of professional training early on in order to make
sure children are properly equipped for the professions they want to join. It is, however, pre-
sumptuous to insist that there will only be so many jobs for so many scientists, so many business-
men, so many accountants. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind
of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states
and involves so many international corporations.
       But, for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-
developed skills, all other factors being equal , can be the difference between having a job and not.
Of course, the basics of using any computer these days are very simple. It does not take a lifelong
acquaintance to pick up various software programs. If one wanted to become a computer engineer ,
that is, of course, an entirely different story. Basic computer skills take--at the very longest-a
couple of months to learn. In any case, basic computer skills are only complementary to the host
of real skills that are necessary to becoming any kind of professional. It should be observed, of
course, that no school, vocational or not, is helped by a confusion over its purpose.
59. The author thinks the present rush to put computers in the classroom is__
[ A] far-reaching [ B] dubiously oriented [ C] self-contradictory [ D] radically reformatory
60. The belief that educalion is indispensable to all children__
[A]is indicative of a pessimism in disguise
[B]came into being along with the arrival of computers
[C]is deeply rooted in the minds of computer-ed advocates
[ D]originated from the optimistic attitude of industrialized countries
61 . It could be inferred from the passage that in the author' s country the European model of pro-
fessional training is__
[A]dependent upon the starting age of candidates
[B]worth trying in various social sections
[C]of little practical value
[D] attractive to every kind of professional
62 . According to the author, basic computer skills should be__
[A] included as an auxiliary course in school
[ B] highlighted in acquisition of professional qualifications
[ C]mastered through a life-long course
[ D] equally emphasized by any school , vocational or otherwise532

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