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土建类外文文献及翻译

更新时间:2010-5-14:  来源:毕业论文
土建类外文文献及翻译
Civil Engineering
English is the Civil Engineering Civil Engineering, civil engineering is literally, it is the construction of the project collectively. It means building objects that the construction on the ground, underground, water works facilities, equipment and materials to use in surveying, design construction, maintenance, repair and other professional skills. Civil Engineering with the progress of the human society, has been transformed into large integrated disciplines, it has a number of branches, such as : construction, rail projects, road projects, bridge projects, special project structure, water drainage works, the port project, water, environmental engineering disciplines. A total of six professional Civil Engineering : architecture, urban planning, civil engineering, construction and environmental engineering equipment, water drainage works and road bridge project.
   Civil Engineering as an important foundation subjects, its important attribute : an integrated, social, practicality, uniformity. Civil Engineering for the development www.lwfree.com and improve the living standards of the people provided important material and technological foundation for the revitalization of many industries played a catalytic role in the construction of fixed assets is a basic production process, the construction and real estate in many countries and regions become a pillar of the economy
   Ancient Civil Engineering has a long time span, roughly 500 years before Christ from the original date in civil engineering activities to the 16 century Italian Renaissance, resulting in the rapid development of the Civil Engineering on the road today, and has experienced more than 2,000 years. During this period, due to the development of scientific theories and slow, there is no breakthrough in civil engineering practices.
Century from 17 pages to 40 years in the 20th century end of the Second World War 300 years, foreign construction made great strides. Civil Engineering has entered a phase of quantitative analysis. Some theoretical development, the emergence of new materials, new tools of invention, the Civil Engineering Science is perfection and maturity. In modern times, after the end of World War II, many countries economic takeoff, the increasing advances of modern science, so as to provide a powerful impetus to further development and material basis. People's living conditions continue to improve, more and more comfortable living environment for the inevitable in the circumstances, the construction of development directly to the Civil Engineering development.
土木工程的英文是Civil Engineering ,直译是民用工程,它是建造各种工程的统称。它既指建设的对象,即建造在地上,地下,水中的工程设施,也指应用的材料设备和进行的勘测,设计施工,保养,维修等专业技术。
土木工程随着人类社会的进步而发展,至今已经演变成为大型综合性的学科,它已经出许多分支,如:建筑工程,铁路工程,道路工程,桥梁工程,特种工程结构,给水排水工程,港口工程,水利工程,环境工程等学科。土木工程共有六个专业:建筑学,城市规划,土木工程,建筑环境与设备工程,给水排水工程和道路桥梁工程。
   土木工程作为一个重要的基础学科,有其重要的属性:综合性,社会性,实践性,统一性。土木工程为国民经济的发展和人民生活的改善提供了重要的物质技术基础,对众多产业的振兴发挥了促进作用,工程建设是形成固定资产的基本生产过程,因此,建筑业和房地产成为许多国家和地区的经济支柱之一。
古代的土木工程有很长的时间跨度,大致从公元前500年新石器时代出现原始的土木工程活动到16世纪末意大利的文艺复兴,导致土木工程走上迅速发展的道路为止,前后经历了两千多年。在这段时间内,由于科学理论发展及其缓慢,土木工程也没有突破习惯的发展。
   从17世纪中页开始到20 世纪40年代第二次世界大战结束为止的300年间,国外的建筑取得了长足的进步。土木工程进入了定量分析阶段。一些理论的发展,新材料的出现,新工具的发明,都使土木工程科学日渐完善和成熟。到了近代,二战结束之后,许多国家经济起飞,现代科学日益进步,从而为进一步发展提供了强大的动力和物质基础。
   人们生活水平的不断提高,必然要求越来越舒适的居住环境,在这种情况下,建筑的发展直接推动了土木工程的发展。
   总的来说土木工程是一门古老的学科,它已经取得了巨大的成就,未来的土木工程将在人们的生活中占据更重要的地位。地球环境的日益恶化,人口的不断增加,人们为了争取生存,为了争取更舒适的生存环境,必将更加重视土木工程。在不久的将来,一些重大项目将会陆续兴建,插入云霄的摩天大楼,横跨大样的桥梁,更加方便的交通将不是梦想。科技的发展,以及地球不断恶化的环境必将促使土木工程向太空和海洋发展,为人类提供更广阔的生存空间。近年来,工程材料主要是钢筋,混凝土,木材和砖材,在未来,传统材料将得到改观,一些全新的更加适合建筑的材料将问世,尤其是化学合成材料将推动建筑走向更高点。同时,设计方法的精确化,设计工作的自动化,信息和智能话技术的全面引入,将会是人们有一个更加舒适的居住环境。一句话,理论的发展,新材料的出现,计算机的应用,高新技术的引入等都将使土木工程有一个新的飞跃. 1163
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