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家族企业管理英文文献及翻译

更新时间:2010-8-3:  来源:毕业论文

家族企业管理英文文献及翻译
INTRODUCTION
The family business is a vital force in the American economy. About 90 percent of all U.S.
businesses are family owned or controlled. They range in size from the traditional small business to a third of the Fortune 500 firms. It is estimated that family businesses generate about half of the country's Gross National Product and half of the total wages paid.
The American economy depends heavily on the continuity and success of the family business. It is unfortunate, even alarming, that such a vital force has such a poor survival rate. Less than one third of family businesses survive the transition from first to second generation ownership. Of those that do, about half do not survive the transition from second to third generation ownership.毕业论文http://www.lwfree.cn
At any given time, 40 percent of U.S. businesses are facing the transfer of ownership issue.
Founders are trying to decide what to do with their businesses; however, the options are few. The
following is a list of options to consider:
Close the doors.
Sell to an outsider or employee.
Retain ownership but hire outside management.
Retain family ownership and management control.
To be one of the few family businesses that survive transfer of ownership requires a good
understanding of your business and your family. There are four basic reasons why family firms fail to transfer the business from generation to generation successfully:
Lack of viability of the business.
Lack of planning.本文来自六'维'论.文'网Little desire on the owner's part to transfer the firm.
Reluctance of offspring to join the firm.
These factors, alone or in combination, make transferring a family business difficult, if not
impossible. The primary cause for failure, however, is the lack of planning. With the right plans in place, the business, in most cases, will remain healthy. There are four plans that make up the
transition process. By implementing these plans, you will virtually ensure the successful transfer of your business within the family hierarchy.
A brief explanation of each plan follows.
A strategic plan for the business will allow each generation an opportunity to chart a
course for the firm. Setting business goals as a family will ensure that everyone has
a clear picture of the company's future.
The family strategic plan is needed to maintain a healthy, viable business. This plan
establishes policies for the family's role in the business. For example, it may include
an entry and exit policy that outlines the criteria for working in the business. It
should include the creed or mission statement that spells out your family's values
and basic policies for the business. The family strategic plan will address other
issues that are important to your family. By implementing this plan, you may avoid
later conflicts about compensation, sibling rivalry, ownership and management
control.
A succession plan will ease the founding or current generation's concerns about
transferring the firm. It outlines how succession will occur and how to know when
the successor is ready. Many founders do not want to let go of the company because
they are afraid the successors are not prepared, or they are afraid to be without a job.
Often, heirs sense this reluctance and plan an alternative career. If, however, the
heirs see a plan in place that outlines the succession process, they may be more apt
to continue in the family business.
An estate plan is critical for the family and the business. Without it, you will pay
higher estate taxes than necessary. Taking the time to develop an estate plan ensures
that your estate goes primarily to your heirs rather than to taxes.
For business owners who do little planning, the idea of preparing four plans may seem overwhelming. Although it is not easy, the commitment made by all family members during the planning process is the key ingredient for business continuity and success. The first rule for successfully operating and transferring the family firm is: Share information with all family members, active and nonactive. By doing this, you will eliminate problems that arise when decisions are made and implemented without the knowledge and counsel of all family members.
This publication will help you plan for a successful transfer of ownership and avoid many of the
problems family businesses face when transfer of ownership occurs. The appendixes include aids to help you implement the process.毕业论文http://www.lwfree.cn
UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY BUSINESS
This section will explore the nature of the family business as a dual operating system, and will identify issues of greatest concern to family business owners, as identified by family business owners across the United States. As you review these issues, you will see that, although you and your family are unique, the challenges you face are not, because almost every family business shares the same problems.
Also, perspectives of the individuals involved in a family business will be presented. We tend to confuse personality with perspective -- understanding the viewpoints of the different actors involved in the family business (active and nonactive) can help alleviate conflicts that may arise. After reading this section, you and your family should complete the Family Business Assessment本文来自六'维'论.文'网
Inventory in Appendix A.
What Is a Family Business?
Defined simply, a family business is any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved. It is also a complex, dual system consisting of the family and the business; family members involved in the business are part of a task system (the business) and part of a family system. As you can see in Figure 1, these two systems overlap. This is where conflict may occur because each system has its own rules, roles and requirements. For example, the family system is an emotional one, stressing relationships and rewarding loyalty with love and with care. Entry into this system is by birth, and membership is permanent. The role you have in the family -- husband/father, wife/mother,child/brother/sister -- carries with it certain responsibilities and expectations. In addition, families have their own style of communicating and resolving conflicts, which they have spent years perfecting. These styles may be good for family situations but may not be the best ways to resolve business conflicts.
Figure 1 is a graphic not available in this format. Conversely, the business system is unemotional and contractually based. Entry is based on experience, expertise and potential. Membership is contingent upon performance, and performance is rewarded materially. Like the family system, roles in the business, such as president, manager,employee and stockholder/owner, carry specific responsibilities and expectations. And like the home environment, businesses have their own communication, conflict resolution and decisionmaking styles.1481

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