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COPERT Ⅲ公路运输的排放量英文文献秋翻译

更新时间:2011-10-16:  来源:毕业论文

Introduction
This report describes the methodology and relevant emission factors which are suggested to be used for the calculation of emission estimates from road transport.The methodology is fully incorporated in the computer programme COPERT III,which facilitates its application. The development of COPERT III was financed by the European Environment Agency, in the framework of the activities of the European Topic Centre on Air Emissions. It is proposed to be used by EEA member countries for the compilation of CORINAIR emission inventories. To that aim, a special function exists to export results from COPERT III directly to the CollectER format. In principle, COPERT III methodology can be applied for the calculation of traffic emission estimates at a relatively high aggregation level,both temporally and spatially, on a yearly basis for NUTS 0. However, it has been shown that the methodology can also be used with a sufficient degree of certainty at a higher resolution too, for the compilation of urban emission inventories with a spatial resolution of 1x1 km2 and a temporal resolution of 1 hour.This report is the third update of the initial version prepared in 1989 for the CORINAIR 1985 emissions inventory (Eggleston et al. ,1989) and firstly updated in 1991 for the CORINAIR 1990 inventory (Eggleston et al., 1993) and included in the Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 1996). The second update of the methodology (Ahlvik et al., 1997) was introduced in the software tool COPERT II (Ntziachristos and Samaras, 1997) and a further update of the Guidebook was prepared. Several input sources have been used in developing the methodology of COPERTIII. The fundamentals of the methodology date back to the first version of the programme and several emission factors from older vehicles still remain unmodified since this first version. The previous version (COPERT II) introduced several methodological revisions, including extended vehicle classification and pollutant coverage, emission factors and corrections for road gradient and vehicle load, etc. The present version introduces both additional refinements of the COPERT II methodology and new calculation elements. Those revisions and extensions mainly originate from the following sources:
•finalisation of the COST 319 action on the Estimation of Emissions from Transport, (Joumard R. (ed.), 1999),
•completion of the MEET (Methodologies to Estimate Emissions from Transport); a European Commission (Directorate for Transport) sponsored project in the framework of the 4th Framework Programme in the area of Transport (Hickman et al., 1999),原文请+QQ324,9114 六,维^论.文'网
•European Commission’s Auto Oil II programme (Ntziachristos and Samaras,1999b),
•the Inspection and Maintenance project (LAT/AUTh, 1998); a European Commission (Directorate Generals for Environment DGXI ,Transport DGVII, and Energy DGXVII) sponsored project.
•the EPEFE project; a programme conducted by the Association of European Automotive Manufacturers (ACEA) and the European Petroleum Industry Association (EUROPIA) (ACEA and EUROPIA, 1996).
•Continuation of the CONCAWE work on evaporation emissions (CONCAWE,1992).
•In comparison with the COPERT II methodology, the following significant modifications have been introduced.
•Updated hot emission factors and consumption factors for Euro I gasoline and diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles.
•Revised cold start over-emission ratios for Euro I gasoline vehicles.
•Proposal for an alternative evaporation losses modeling.
•Modelling of the effect of vehicle age (mileage) on emissions and the effect of an enhanced Inspection and Maintenance scheme.毕业论文http://www.lwfree.cn/
•Revised vehicle category split, including future emission technologies for different classes and updated, representative emission reduction factors over existing vehicle technologies.
•The effect of the use of improved fuels on the emissions of present and future vehicle technologies.
•Extended NMVOC species profile, providing values for 68 different components.
•Emission factors for 23 PAHs and POPs and additional toxicity equivalent emission factors for Dioxins and Furans.
•Revisited emission factors of non regulated pollutants (little modifications have been made).
Additional corrections / revisions have been incorporated according to the review of the methodology conducted by several Member States in the frame of national inventorying use of the programme. Such modifications include an improved unleaded allocation module, emission corrections for fuel consumption dependant pollutants, etc.
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