毕业论文论文范文课程设计实践报告法律论文英语论文教学论文医学论文农学论文艺术论文行政论文管理论文计算机安全
您现在的位置: 毕业论文 >> 英语论文 >> 正文

英语定语从句状语化研究及翻译

更新时间:2015-1-24:  来源:毕业论文
英语定语从句状语化研究及翻译
摘 要: 英语中有些定语从句实际上只是形式上的定语结构, 对它的先行词所起的限定、修饰功能很弱, 在句子中起着状语的作用, 有表示原因、结果、条件、让步、目的、时间等状语的性质。本文主要以英美新闻报纸为语料, 谈一谈这种带有状语性质的定语从句——状语化定语从句的理解和翻译。
关键词:定语从句 关系 状语从句 翻译
英语中有些定语从句对它的先行词所起的限定、修饰功能很弱, 只是形式上的定语结构,实际上在意义上与主句有状语关系,说明原因、结果、条件、让步、转折、目的、时间、空间等关系。翻译时首先判断主、从句之间的关系, 然后再将定于从句转换成适当的状语从句形式加以翻译。本文主要以英美新闻报纸为语料,谈谈这种带有状语性质的定语从句——状语化定语从句的理解和翻译。
1 译成原因状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有说明主句原因的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示原因关系的词语, 如“因为”等词, 并转译成汉语相应的从句。
The strike would prevent the docking of ocean steamships,which require assistance of tugboats.
[试译] 罢工将使远洋货轮无法靠岸,因为它们需要拖船的帮助。
The Carter Administration has tentatively decided against the sale to Taiwan of long-range F-4 Phantom fighters that could be used to attack China,Administration officials said today.
[试译] 一些政府官员今天说,卡特政府已初步决定不向台湾出售F-4 幻影远程战斗机,因为台湾当局极可能使用这种战斗机来攻打中国大陆。
“We are not too worried about Congress,where we have many good friends,and we are convinced that Sadat will fall on his face if he tries to weaken our ties with American Jewry.” Said a policymaker in Jerusalem.“But we are apprehensive about what will come out of Sadat’s meetings with Carter,who likes to please his guests by saying something they want to hear.”
[试译]“我们对美国国会并不太担心,因为我们在里面有许多好朋友。我们深信, 如果萨达特企图削弱我们与美国犹太人的联系,他肯定会碰一鼻子灰。”耶路撒冷某一决策者说:“我们所担心的是,一旦萨达特同卡特尔总统会晤成功,会产生什么样的后果,因为萨达特总喜欢说些奉承客人的话。”
2 译成结果状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有说明主句结果的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示结果关系的词语,如“因此”等词,并转译成汉语相应的从句。
Copper,which is used so widely for carrying electricity,offers very little resistance.
[试译] 铜的阻力很小,因此被十分广泛地用于输电。
Scientists say this could lead to design changes in airplanes that would save hundreds of millions of dollars in fuel costs.
[试译] 科学家们说,这项成就将引起飞机设计上的变化,从而可以在飞机燃料费用方面节约数亿美元。
The first computers used the same types of component which made equipment very large and bulky.
[试译] 首批计算机采用同类元件,致使设备既庞大又笨重。
3 译成条件状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句条件的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示条件关系的词语, 如“如果”等词, 并转译成汉语相应的从句。
Anybody who commits the land power of the United States on the continent of Asia ought to have his head examined.
[试译] 如果谁要把美国的地面部队派遣到亚洲大陆,那他就应该检查一下他的脑子是否正常。
They amounted to near twenty thousand pounds,which to pay would have ruined me.
[试译]金钱总额将近两万英镑,如果要我个人赔,非要了我的命不可。
It may seem somewhat odd to get water from fire,but we shall find that water is a common by-product of any fire in which hydrogen takes part.
[试译] 火中取水,似乎有点离奇?但我们不难发现:水乃是火燃烧后所产生的一种常见的副产品;只要燃烧过程中有氢气的存在,便会产生水。
4 译成让步状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句让步的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示让步关系的词语,如“虽然”等词,并转译成汉语相应的从句。
Although we have suffered heavy losses by assisting the French and during the Dunkirk evacuation,we have managed to husband our air fighter strength in spite of poignant appeals from France to throw it improvidently into the great land battle,which it could not have turned decisively.
[试译] 在援助法国和敦克尔克大撤退中,我们损失惨重,但还是设法保存空战实力,我们没有因为法国的强烈呼吁而草率投入地面战斗。即使当时我们这样做,也是回天乏术,败局已定。
The statement was phrased in language unfamiliar to anyone who had listened to his speeches for years.
[试译] 他在这一声明中所用的措辞,对于那些即使是多年来听过他演讲的人来说,也是陌生的。
President Asssad,who earlier this year had been flirting with such hard – liners as Libyan President Muammar Kaddafi,drooped his bitter claim that Egypt‘s Sinai Agreement with Israel were“a sell out of the Arabs” and seemed willing to let Sadat lead the diplomatic search or a political solution to the Arab Israel conflict.
[试译] 阿萨德总统虽然今年早些时候曾与利比亚总统卡扎菲这样的强硬派人物打得火热,现在却不再强烈攻击埃以签订的《西奈协议》是“出卖阿拉伯国家的协议”,并且看来还愿意让萨达特带头寻求解决阿以冲突问题的政治外交办法。
5 译成目的状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句目的的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示目的关系的词语,如“为了”等词,并转译成汉语相应的从句。
Chinese trade delegations have been sent to African countries,who will negotiate trade agreements with the respective governments.
[试译] 中国贸易代表团前往非洲各国,(以便)届时将与非洲各国政府进行贸易协定谈判。
The present generation is provided with more facts than any previous generation,but we seem to be less and less capable of receiving the facts into our imaginations where they may come alive with feeling.
[译文]我们这一代人所掌握的客观知识比以往任何一代人所掌握的更为丰富,但我们似乎愈来愈不善于把客观知识和我们的主观想象力结合起来,以使这些知识活灵活现。
Some nuclear reactors are used to produce the heat that runs machines for ships and for electric power plants.
[试译] 有些核反应堆是用来产生热能的,以开动轮船和发电厂的机器。
6 译成转折状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句转折的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示转折关系的词语, 如“但是”等词, 并转译成汉语相应的从句。
She was very patient towards the children,which her husband seldom was.
[试译] 她对孩子很有耐心,可她的丈夫却常常不是如此。
When I look back on all these worries I remember the story of the old man who said on his deathbed that he had had a lot of trouble in his life,most of which had never happened.
[试译] 我每每回顾起这些忧虑时,就会想起一位老人在临终前说过的话:他也曾经有过诸多忧虑, 可这些忧虑大多没有发生。http://www.lwfree.cn/
The suit asks the court to block Kodak from selling its cameras,which it had planned to do starting this month in Canada and late next month in the US.
[试译] 原告要求法庭禁止科达公司出售其生产的相机,但该公司早已计划于本月几下月底分别在加拿大和美国出售。
7 成递进状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句递进的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示递进关系的词语,如“而且”等词,并转译成汉语相应的从句。
The fact that the new alliance was locally generated and sustained should be a strong inducement to the US whose interests already dictate such support.
[试译] 新联盟是在当地形成并且得到了当地政府的有力扶持,这一情况对于美国来说应该具有很大的诱惑力,更何况美国自身的利益也要求它对新联盟给予支持。
8 译成时间状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句时间的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示时间顺序关系的词语,如“起初”等词,并转译成汉语相应的从句。
Congress,which had met to continue its protests to the Crown,found itself raising an army and selecting George Washington as its commander in chief.
[试译] 代表大会原先已经集合,决定继续向英皇提出抗议,而现在则发展到募集军队,并且推选乔治.华盛顿为总司令了。
It was a keen disappointment when I had to postpone the visit which I had intended to pay to China in January.
[试译] 我原先打算元月份访华,后来不得不推迟,这使我深感不快。
Samuel O.Bruh was just an ordinary - looking citizen like you and me,except for a curious,shoe - shaped scar on his left cheek,which he got when he fell against a wagon - tongue in his youth.
[试译] 萨缪尔.布鲁这位老兄相貌平平,犹如你我,只不过是年少时有一回摔倒,撞在大车辕杆上,从此,左颊留下了一道疤痕;那疤痕倒也别致,形状像只小小的鞋印,令人感到好奇。
9 译成空间状语从句
英语的定语从句如果在意义上具有表明主句递进的含义,在翻译时可以加上汉语表示空间顺序关系的词语, 如“在⋯⋯”等词,并转译成汉语相应的从句。
Can you answer a question,which I want to ask,and which is puzzling me?
[试译] 我有一个问题弄不懂,相请教你,你能回答吗?
由此看来,翻译时首先应摆脱英语形式的束缚,把握其各个部分含义的内在关系,对定语从句的外在形式进行重组,判断主、从句的逻辑关系,然后再按照汉语的行文习惯,将转换成适当的状语从句形式翻译。
参考文献
[1] 贾文波.汉英时文翻译:政治经济汉译英300 句析[M].上海:中国对外翻译出版公司,1988.
陆国强.英汉和汉英语义结构对比[M].上海:复旦大学出版社,1997.
赵世开.汉英对比语法论集[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1999.
朱德熙.现代汉语语法研究[M].上海:商务印书馆,2001.
孙海.汉译英实用技能训练[M].北京:外文出版社,1998.
英语定语从句状语化研究及翻译下载如图片无法显示或论文不完整,请联系qq752018766
设为首页 | 联系站长 | 友情链接 | 网站地图 |

copyright©lwfree.cn 六维论文网 严禁转载
如果本毕业论文网损害了您的利益或者侵犯了您的权利,请及时联系,我们一定会及时改正。