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计算机数字控制(CNC)英文文献和中文翻译

时间:2019-10-15 20:19来源:毕业论文
ABSTRACT:CNC stands for Computerized Numerical Control and has been around since the early 1970s. Prior to this, it was called NC, for numerical control. While people in most walks of life have never heard of this term, CNC has touched almos

ABSTRACT:CNC stands for Computerized Numerical Control and has been around since the early 1970s. Prior to this, it was called NC, for numerical control. While people in most walks of life have never heard of this term, CNC has touched almost every form of manufacturing process in one way or another. If you'll be working in manufacturing, it's likely that you'll be dealing with CNC on a regular basis'.  40988
       KEY WORDS: CNC, Computer integrated manufacturing, CAM system 
       CNC machines typically replace (or work in conjunction with) some existing manufacturing processes. Take one of the simplest manufacturing processes, drilling holes, for example.  
       A drill press can of course be used to machine holes. A person can place a drill in the drill chuck that is secured in the spindle of the drill press. They can then (manually) select the desired speed for rotation (commonly by switching belt pulleys), and activate the spindle. Then they manually pull on the quill lever to drive the drill into the workpiece being machined.  
       As you can easily see, there is a lot of manual intervention required to use a drill press to drill holes. A person is required to do something almost every step along the way! While this manual intervention may be acceptable for manufacturing companies if but a small number of holes or workpieces must be machined, as quantities grow, so does the likelihood for fatigue due to the tediousness of the operation. And do note that we've used one of the simplest machining operations (drilling) for our example. There are more complicated machining operations that would require a much higher skill level (and increase the potential for mistakes resulting in scrap workpieces) of the person running the conventional machine tool. (We commonly refer to the style of machine that CNC is replacing as the conventional machine.)  源`自<六:维*论-文>网/www.lwfree.cn
       By comparison, the CNC equivalent for a drill press (possibly a CNC machining center or CNC drilling & tapping center) can be programmed to perform this operation in a much more automatic fashion. See fig. 1. Everything that the drill press operator was doing manually will now be done by the CNC machine, including: placing the drill in the spindle, activating the spindle, positioning the workpiece under the drill, machining the hole, and turning off the spindle.
 fig.1    machining center        

How CNC works 
As you might already have guessed, everything that an operator would be required to do with conventional machine tools is programmable with CNC machines. Once the machine is setup and running, a CNC machine is quite simple to keep running. In fact CNC operators tend to get quite bored during lengthy production runs because there is so little to do. With some CNC machines, even the workpiece loading process has been automated. Let's look at some of the specific programmable functions. 
Motion control 
All CNC machine types share this commonality: They all have two or more programmable directions of motion called axes. An axis of motion can be linear (along a straight line) or rotary (along a circular path). One of the first specifications that imply a CNC machine's complexity is how many axes it has. Generally speaking,
the more axes, the more complex the machine.
 
fig 2 coordinate system
       The axes of any CNC machine are required for the purpose of causing the motions needed for the manufacturing process. In the drilling example, these (3) axes would position the tool over the hole to be machined (in two axes) and machine the
hole (with the third axis). Axes are named with letters. Common linear axis names are X, Y, and Z. Common rotary axis names are A, B, and C. These are related to the coordinate system. See fig.2.  计算机数字控制(CNC)英文文献和中文翻译:http://www.lwfree.cn/fanyi/20191015/40895.html
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