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3万吨/天海水淡化超滤-反渗透膜法处理的工艺设计

时间:2017-10-12 09:44来源:毕业论文
采用超滤+反渗透工艺进行海水淡化,设计了淡水产量为3万吨/天的反渗透海水淡化工艺系统
摘要:水资源一直都是人类宝贵、不可代替的自然资源。水资源危机已经成为继石油危机以及电力危机之外的又一个中国经济发展的瓶颈。从长计议起,海水谈话的技术一直设法致力于从海洋获取淡水,一直以来都是解决水资源短缺问题的重要途径之一。海水淡化技术种类繁多,蒸馏法、膜法、离子交换法等,而适用于大规模淡化海水的方法只有多级闪蒸、多效蒸溜和反渗透法。反渗透法与现有的其他分离方法相比,具有相态不变、不用加热、设备简单、效率高占地小、操作简便、消耗少、适应性强等特点[1]。并且反渗透技术还不会造成环境二次污染,排污费用也较低,容易达到环保要求,制水成本可大幅度降低,所以易于大规模工业化生产。
海水淡化技术的发展已有了自己新的方向,膜技术将海水看作是可以开发的水资源,其实己经成为众多学者的新型研究方向,通过国内外的海水淡化分析,本课题毕业论文采用超滤+反渗透工艺进行海水淡化,设计了淡水产量为3万吨/天的反渗透海水淡化工艺系统,一般说来,反渗透海水淡化工艺可以分为三个部分:预处理、反渗透,因膜污染而不得不进行的膜清洁,故反渗透工艺一般分有四个部分。本方案能保证出水水质符合后续设备的水质要求,而且也不需要添加任何化学试剂,和一些传统的预处理方法相比这个方法就不会增加新的污染物。14198
如今通过实践已经表明,采用超滤-反渗透工艺进行海水淡化,是适用于海水淡化处理工艺的并且在技术和经济上均是可行的。
本设计参考了以下国家标准和规定:
a.海水淡化预处理膜系统设计规范(GB/T31327-2014)

源自六[维^论'文]网.加7位QQ3249'114 www.lwfree.cn


b.海水淡化反渗透系统运行管理规范(GB/T31328-2014)
c.海水水质标准(GB3097-1997)
d.反渗透水处理设备(GB/T19249-2003)
e.城市给排水紫外线消毒设备(GB/T19837-2005)
f.生活饮用水卫生标准(GB5749-85)
g.钢制压力容器(GB150)
h.工艺系统设备布置设计规定(HG20570)
i.化工装置管道布置设计规定(HG/T20549)

关键词:海水淡化;超滤膜;反渗透;预处理

Process design of sea water desalination ultrafiltration-reverse osmosis membrane treatment                    for 3 million tons/day
Abstract:
Water is the spring of life, and the valuable and irreplaceable natural resource for people. Except oil crisis and electric power crisis, water resource crisis has become another bottleneck which restricts China's economic development. In the long run, developing desalination technology and gaining fresh water from ocean are the important approaches to solve the shortage of water resource. There are many kinds of seawater desalination technologies, such as distillation method (multistage flash evaporation, multi effect distillation and others), membrane method (reverse osmosis, electro dialysis and others), ion exchange method, freezing method and other methods, but only the multistage flash evaporation, multiple-effect distillation and reverse osmosis process apply to large-scale seawater desalination. Comparing to other existing separation methods, reverse osmosis process has some outstanding features, such as invariant phase state, dispensing with heating, simple equipment, high efficiency, small occupation, easy operation, less energy consumption, well adaptability and others. Meanwhile, application of reverse osmosis technology will not cause the secondary pollution of environment, expense on pollutant emission is low, environmental requirement is easy to get, water producing cost reduces greatly, and it is easy for large scale commercial production. 源自六[维^论'文]网.加7位QQ3249'114 www.lwfree.cn
Sea water desalination becomes a new direction in water treatment field, it has become a new topic for mass research scholars that using membrane technology to make sea water be developable water resource, by analyzing that ultrafiltration membrane is used in sea water desalination industry at home and abroad, this topic uses double membrane method (ultrafiltration+ reverse osmosis) technology to proceed sea water desalination, the reverse osmosis sea water desalination process system with 3 million tons/day of freshwater field is designed, generally speaking, reverse osmosis sea water desalination process can be pided into three parts: pretreatment, reverse osmosis and post-processing, combined with the required membrane cleaning caused by membrane fouling, so there are four parts in reverse osmosis process. This project can make sure the effluent quality accords with the requirement of follow-up equipment, and no chemical reagent needs to be added, comparing with traditional pretreatment methods, any new contaminant will not be added. 3万吨/天海水淡化超滤-反渗透膜法处理的工艺设计:http://www.lwfree.cn/huaxue/20171012/14668.html
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