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硬脂酸类包覆硝铵粒子改善吸湿性能的研究

时间:2019-01-05 19:06来源:毕业论文
对硝酸铵(AN)防吸湿包覆工艺进行了研究 。在考察了12种表活剂的吸湿性基础上,以表面活性剂为包覆材料,以相对吸湿率为考核指标,对经筛选所得具有最佳包覆效果的表活剂进行了

摘要本文对硝酸铵(AN)防吸湿包覆工艺进行了研究 。在考察了12种表活剂的吸湿性基础上,以表面活性剂为包覆材料,以相对吸湿率为考核指标,对经筛选所得具有最佳包覆效果的表活剂进行了单因素探索实验:考查了包覆剂用量、溶剂配比等工艺条件对包覆效果的影响;同时还探索研究了复合表活剂的包覆效果;最后,对包覆AN样品进行了表征。结果表明,胺类、酸类表活剂基本不吸湿,醇类表活剂少量吸湿;胺类、醇类表活剂随着碳链增长,对AN的包覆效果下降,酸类反之。对AN包覆后的吸湿率降幅由大到小依次为胺类表活剂、酸类表活剂,醇类表活剂。在所做的实验范围内有最佳包覆效果的是十二胺,其最佳工艺条件为:十二胺用量约为1.0g,环己烷与三氯甲烷体积比为1:1,在该条件下,得到的包覆AN的吸湿率降幅约为17%。复合表活剂(十二胺和十八酸)的包覆效果较好,其工艺条件为,环己烷与三氯甲烷体积比为1:1,吸湿率降幅约为12%。电镜表征得到,硝酸铵表面粗糙度得到极大改善。32259
关键词  硝酸铵  表活剂  吸湿性  包覆  改性
毕业论文设计说明书外文摘要
Title   The Research on Improving Hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate  Particles Coated with Stearic Acid
Abstract
In this paper, the improving hygroscopicity coating process for AN was studied. Based on hygroscopicity of 12 kinds of surfactants, single factor experiment for the best coating effect of surfactants was conducted, using surfactants as coating material, relative hygroscopicity rate as assessment index. The influence of coated dosage, solvent ratio, as well as the composite surfactant on the coating were in the results. The coated AN were characterized by TEM. It turned out that amine-group-linked and acid-group-linked surfactants were non-hygroscopic, and alcohol-group-linked surfactants was of a little hygroscopic. The coating effect of amine-group-linked and acid-group-linked surfactants was reduced with the growth of carbon chains, and vice versa for the acids. The  hygroscopic declining rate from big to small was amines-surfactants, acids-surfactants and alcohol- surfactants. Dodecylamine has the better effect as coating material within the scope of research. The corresponding technological condition was 1.0 g of dodecylamine, cyclohexane : trichloromethane(ml:ml) =1:1. Under such condition, The hygroscopicity declining rate of coated AN was about 17%. Composite surfactants (surfactants and surfactants) have also better effect, and their hygroscopicity declining rate was about 12%. Its technological condition was cyclohexane : trichloromethane(ml:ml) =1:1. The TEM showed that the surface roughness of ammonium nitrate was greatly improved.
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Keywords  Ammonium nitrate  surfactants  hygroscopicity  Coating  Modification
目   次
1  引言    1
1.1  硝酸铵的基本性质    1
1.2  AN防吸湿研究进展    2
1.3  存在问题    4
2  实验部分    5
2.1  实验仪器    5
2.2  实验药品    5
2.3  实验原理    6
2.4  实验设计    7
2.5  实验步骤    10
2.6  实验结果和分析    10
2.7 表征    18
结   论    22
展   望    23
致  谢    24
参考文献25
1  引言
硝酸铵(AN)是使用最为广泛的肥料,也是固体推进剂的主要成分和爆炸性的材料。特点是,含能高,性能稳定且来源广泛。硝酸铵颗粒在炸药、推进剂等领域有着非常广泛的用途,前景十分广阔。如利用其含能高、性能稳定等优点,用于制造威力较高且感度适中的工业炸药;利用其价格低、来源广泛、不含卤素而且特征信号低等优点,可作为氧化剂替代高氯酸铵(AP),用来制备低特征信号、低污染的固体推进剂[1]。当AN作为化肥使用时,其严重的结块性直接影响了机械化施肥。而当AN应用于推进剂中时,其吸湿性同样影响了推进剂的燃烧性能和贮存稳定性[3]。所以,充分有效的利用AN的关键之处在于如何有效的改变AN的表面结构,从而降低AN的吸湿性和结块性[2,3]。 硬脂酸类包覆硝铵粒子改善吸湿性能的研究:http://www.lwfree.cn/huaxue/20190105/28756.html
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