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果蔬种植业化肥农药施田的环境效应

时间:2019-07-21 19:44来源:毕业论文
探讨果蔬种植业的可持续发展性,并引出果蔬种植业所施用的主要化肥农药,分别研究化肥农药对周边环境的影响,并提出了相关建议

摘要:我国现已进入加快改造传统农业、走中国特色农业现代化道路的关键时刻,农业的发展对国家经济社会发展和粮食安全、供给平衡问题有意义重大。由于城市化的发展,农村人口大量减少,江苏省政府也积极统筹城乡发展,出台一系列惠农利民政策,鼓励当地种植业的发展,并吸引了许多大户承包土地发展果蔬种植业,如草莓、菇类、火龙果种植园等,这不仅能让当地市民吃上新鲜的水果,更增加了承包户的经济收入,提高了生活水平,带动城镇经济发展。但是种植业的迅速发展也造成了许多环境问题。化肥农药大量施田对周边环境的水、土壤、大气、生物等产生了严重影响。本文用实地调研和参考相关文献资料相结合的方法,探讨果蔬种植业的可持续发展性,并引出果蔬种植业所施用的主要化肥农药,分别研究化肥农药对周边环境的影响,并提出了相关建议。37482
毕业论文关键词:果蔬种植业发展; 化肥农药; 环境影响
Abstract:China has entered to accelerate the transformation of traditional agriculture now, agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics critical moment .The development of agriculture to national economic and social development and food security, supply meaningful significant balance problems. Due to the development of urbanization, a significant reduction in the rural population, Jiangsu Province government is also actively coordinating urban and rural development, and introduced a series of policies which can help people to encourage the development of local farming, and has attracted many large land development contract farming of fruits and vegetables, Such as strawberries, mushrooms, dragon fruit plantations. This not only allows local people to eat fresh fruit, but also increased contract income households, raise living standards and promote economic development.But the rapid development of farming has also caused many environmental problems. A large number of chemical fertilizers and pesticides applied to fields on the surrounding environment of water, soil, air and biological a serious impact. Method combined with the field research and reference to the relevant literatures of the sustainable development of fruit and vegetable farming, and leads to the fruit and vegetable planting industry application of fertilizer and pesticide, respectively to study the effect of chemical fertilizer and pesticide on the surrounding environment, and puts forward related suggestions. 源`自^六;维'论.文;网www.lwfree.cn
Keywords: fruit and vegetable cultivation   fertilizer and pesticide   environmental impact
目    录
摘    要    I
英文摘要    II
1  前言    1
2 果树种植业化肥农药施田对周边环境影响    3
2.1 化肥施田的环境效应    3
  2.1.1化肥施用现状    3
2.1.1.1氮肥施田的环境效应    4
2.1.1.2 磷肥施田的环境效应    4
2.1.1.3 钾肥施田的环境效应    4
2.2 农药施田的环境效应     4
  2.2.1农药施田对土壤环境的影响    5
  2.2.2农药施田对水环境的影响    6
  2.2.3农药施田对大气环境的影响    7
  2.2.4农药施田对农作物和生物的影响    7
  2.2.5农药施田对粮食安全的影响    8
3措施与建议    9
 3.1 管理体制    9
 3.2 技术创新    9
 3.3 民众意识    10
4结语    10
参考文献    11
1、前言
    我国人口基数巨大,多数人在农村,是名副其实的农业大国,江苏省也不例外。种植业是广大农民赖以生存的基础产业,也是大部分农村家庭经济收入的主要来源[1]。我国改革和发展的根本问题就包括农业、农村和农民问题。如今,国家大力推广城市化发展,农村人口剧减,农村剩余荒废的土地也随之增多,吸引了大量种植承包户。特别是中国加入WTO以后,扩大了市场需求,所以政府鼓励农业的发展,出台一些切实可行的利民政策如良种补贴政策、农业购置补贴政策、农业防灾减灾稳产增产关键技术良法补助政策、现代农业人才支撑计划、农作物病虫害防控补助政策等,鼓励承包户的积极性[2]。现种植业的形式也发生了变革,不再单一的大面积种植水稻小麦,承包户们受巨大经济效益驱使,大量种植反季水果、蔬菜,果蔬种植业的发展优势体现了出来,随之也带来一系列问题。(如表1-1) 果蔬种植业化肥农药施田的环境效应:http://www.lwfree.cn/huaxue/20190721/36239.html
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