【摘要】随着我国经济的高速发展，起重机的使用更加广泛，需求量越来越大，对其安全性、经济性等方面的要求也越来越高。偏挂门式起重机是桥式起重机的一种，又称龙门吊，它主要用于室外的货场的装卸作业，在港口、货场等有着广泛使用。本课题以16t偏挂起重机为研究对象，采用现代设计方法---有限元法，对起重机的重要部件主梁进行结构设计并进行有限元分析，以提高结构的可靠性和经济性。31944
本文首先分析了该型起重机的工作状况和受力特点，确定了起重机总体结构参数和主梁所用材料；设计了主梁的主要组成部分和几何尺寸；通过主梁受力分析，确定了主梁截面尺寸，并进行了强度和刚度校核。
课题对起重机主梁进行了有限元分析。采用PRO/E建立了主梁的实体模型，并导入ansys软件中，选择BEAM3单元；材料属性为16Mn；自动划分网格；在梁两端施加固支约束，在梁跨中施加载荷。分析结果表明，主梁的最大应力位于跨中位置，变形为41.041mm满足设计要求。

With the rapid development of China's economy, the use of crane is more extensive, the demand is increasing, and the safety and economy of the crane is higher and higher.Partial hanging gantry crane is a crane, also known as gantry crane.It is mainly used for outdoor yard handling operations, at the port, a widely used freight yard.This topic of 16t partial hanging crane is the research object, the modern design method, the finite element method, the girder, which is an important component of crane for structure design and finite element analysis, in order to improve the reliability and economy of the structure.

In this paper, the working status and the characteristics of the crane are firstly analyzed, and the overall structure parameters and the material of the main girder are determined.The main components and geometrical dimensions of the main girder are designed, and the main girder is determined by the stress analysis of the main girder, and the strength and stiffness are checked.
The subject of the crane girder is analyzed by finite element method.. The solid model of the main girder is built by PROE and imported into ANSYS software.The material properties are BEAM3, the material property is 16Mn, and the grid is pided automatically, and the fixed supports are applied to the beam at the ends of the beam, and the load is loaded in the middle.The results show that the maximum stress of the main girder is located in the middle position and the deformation is 41.041mm to meet the design requirements.
Based on the structural design and finite element analysis, the assembly drawings and the main parts of the crane are completed.
[Keywords] : partial hanging crane ,main girder,Structural static analysis ,ANSYS

Abstract    2

1.1起重机的产生背景    5
1.2起重机的结构与用途    5
1.3国内起重机的研究现状及存在的问题    5
1.4国外起重机的发展趋势    6
1.5研究方法与技术路线    6

2.1偏挂起重机的组成    7
2.2偏挂起重机的金属结构    8
2.3偏挂起重机的主要设计参数    8
2.4起重机其他结构、零部件的设计    9
2.4.1支腿的设计    9
2.4.2下横梁的设计    9