## 水准测量误差来源及消除方法的研究

Abstract Leveling is a very common way of measuring which used in architectural engineering, road construction and other construction projects. At the same time,it is also an important way to gain elevation data. Although all kinds of multifunctional measuring instruments emerge in an endless stream with the rapid development of modern science and technology, leveling is also widely used in the engineering survey for its high precision. However, there are also many errors during the surveying. These errors usually affect the accuracy of measurement directly. Thus, the exploration of the errors produced in Leveling works and its solutions are essential for the housing and construction. This paper firstly analyzed some reasons of leveling errors , put forward several solutions by theoretical knowledge,then proving the existence of the errors using the measured data. Finally,I prove the effectiveness of the solutions by comparative experiments.After several experiments ,a series of experimental data show that each the proposed solution indeed works. 源￥自%六^^维*论-文+网=www.lwfree.cn
Key words：leveling, error analysis, error elimination.

Abstract    Ⅱ
1  绪论    1
1.1  概述    1
1.1.1  研究的目的和意义    1
1.1.2  研究现状    1
1.1.3  本文研究内容    1
1.1.4  水准测量原理2
1.1.5  水准测量的方法..2
1.2  主要误差分类    3
1.3  实验方案概述    4
1.3.1  实验方式    4
1.3.2  实验目的    4
1.3.3  仪器及用具    4
1.3.4  实验步骤    4
1.3.5  四等水准测量技术要求    5
2  水准测量误差来源分析及实验验证    6
2.1   仪器误差    6
2.1.1  视准轴与水准管轴不平行的误差    6
2.1.2  交叉误差    14
2.1.3  水准尺误差    15
2.2   观测误差    25
2.2.1  精平误差    25
2.2.2  调焦误差    25
2.2.3  估读误差    26
2.2.4  水准尺倾斜误差    27
2.3   外界环境的影响    28
2.3.1  水准仪水准尺下沉误差    28
2.3.2  大气折光及地球曲率的影响    28
3  结束语..30

1  绪论
1.1  概述
1.1.1  研究的目的和意义

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